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[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 49, Volume 4]
[Revised as of October 1, 2003]
[CITE: 49CFR231]

[Page 396-438]
 

TITLE 49--TRANSPORTATION
CHAPTER II--FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
PART 231--RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS--Table of Contents


Sec.
231.0 Applicability and penalties.
231.1 Box and other house cars built or placed in service before October 
          1, 1966.
231.2 Hopper cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends.
231.3 Drop-end high-side gondola cars.
231.4 Fixed-end low-side gondola and low-side hopper cars.
231.5 Drop-end low-side gondola cars.
231.6 Flat cars.
231.7 Tank cars with side platforms.
231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills 
          and end platforms.
231.9 Tank cars without end sills.
231.10 Caboose cars with platforms.
231.11 Caboose cars without platforms.
231.12 Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules.
231.13 Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms.
231.14 Passenger-train cars without end platforms.
231.15 Steam locomotives used in road service.
231.16 Steam locomotives used in switching service.
231.17 Specifications common to all steam locomotives.
231.18 Cars of special construction.
231.19 Definition of ``Right'' and ``Left.''
231.20 Variation in size permitted.
231.21 Tank cars without underframes.
231.22 Operation of track motor cars.
231.23 Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to van-type semi-
          trailer use.
231.24 Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or more 
          above top of rail.
231.25 Track motorcars (self-propelled 4-wheel cars which can be removed 
          from the rails by men).
231.26 Pushcars.
231.27 Box and other house cars without roof hatches or placed in 
          service after October 1, 1966.
231.28 Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed in 
          service after October 1, 1966.
231.29 Road locomotives with corner stairways.
231.30 Locomotives used in switching service.
231.31 Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

Appendix A to Part 231--Schedule of Civil Penalties

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 20102-20103, 20107, 20131, 20301-20303, 21301-
21302, 21304; 49 CFR 1.49(c), (m).

    Source: 33 FR 19663, Dec. 25, 1968, unless otherwise noted.

    Note: Where rivets or bolts are required in this part 231 a two-
piece steel rivet may be used consisting of:
    (a) A solid shank of one-half (\1/2\) inch minimum diameter steel or 
material of equal or greater strength having cold forged head on one 
end, a shank length for material thickness fastened, locking grooves, 
breakneck groove and pull grooves (all annular grooves) on the opposite 
end.
    (b) A collar of similar material which is cold swaged into the 
locking grooves forming a head for the opposite end of item (a)

[[Page 397]]

after the pull groove section has been removed.

Sec. 231.0  Applicability and penalties.

    (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, 
this part applies to all standard gage railroads.
    (b) This part does not apply to:
    (1) A railroad that operates only on track inside an installation 
which is not part of the general railroad system of transportation; or
    (2) Rapid transit operations in an urban area that are not connected 
with the general railroad system of transportation.
    (3) Freight and other non-passenger trains of four-wheel coal cars.
    (4) Freight and other non-passenger trains of eight-wheel standard 
logging cars if the height of each car from the top of the rail to the 
center of the coupling is not more than 25 inches.
    (5) A locomotive used in hauling a train referred to in paragraph 
(b)(4) of this section when the locomotive and cars of the train are 
used only to transport logs.
    (c) Except for the provisions governing uncoupling devices, this 
part does not apply to Tier II passenger equipment as defined in 
Sec. 238.5 of this chapter (i.e., passenger equipment operating at 
speeds exceeding 125 mph but not exceeding 150 mph).
    (d) As used in this part, carrier means ``railroad,'' as that term 
is defined below.
    (e) Railroad means all forms of non-highway ground transportation 
that run on rails or electromagnetic guideways, including (1) commuter 
or other short-haul rail passenger service in a metropolitan or suburban 
area, and (2) high speed ground transportation systems that connect 
metropolitan areas, without regard to whether they use new technologies 
not associated with traditional railroads. Such term does not include 
rapid transit operations within an urban area that are not connected to 
the general railroad system of transportation.
    (f) Any person (an entity of any type covered under 1 U.S.C. 1, 
including but not limited to the following: a railroad; a manager, 
supervisor, official, or other employee or agent of a railroad; any 
owner, manufacturer, lessor, or lessee of railroad equipment, track, or 
facilities; any independent contractor providing goods or services to a 
railroad; and any employee of such owner, manufacturer, lessor, lessee, 
or independent contractor) who violates any requirement of this part or 
causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil 
penalty of at least $500 and not more than $11,000 per violation, except 
that: penalties may be assessed against individuals only for willful 
violations, and, where a grossly negligent violation or a pattern of 
repeated violations has created an imminent hazard of death or injury to 
persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $22,000 
per violation may be assessed. Each day a violation continues shall 
constitute a separate offense. See appendix A to this part for a 
statement of agency civil penalty policy.
    (g) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, Sec. 231.31 
also applies to an operation on a 24-inch, 36-inch, or other narrow gage 
railroad.

[54 FR 33229, Aug. 14, 1989, as amended at 63 FR 11623, Mar. 10, 1998; 
64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999; 66 FR 4192, Jan. 17, 2001]

Sec. 231.1  Box and other house cars built or placed in service before 
          October 1, 1966.

    Except for box and other house cars that comply with either 
Sec. 231.27 or Sec. 231.28, each box and other house car shall be 
equipped to meet the following specifications:
    (a) Handbrake--(1) Number. One efficient handbrake which shall 
operate in harmony with the power brake installed on the car. Each such 
handbrake shall (i) provide the same degree of safety as the design 
shown on plate A, or (ii) provide the same degree of safety as that 
specified in Sec. 231.27.
    (2) Dimensions. (i) The brake shaft shall be not less than 1\1/4\ 
inches in diameter, of wrought iron or steel without weld.
    (ii) The brake wheel may be flat or dished, not less than 15, 
preferably 16, inches in diameter, of malleable iron, wrought iron, or 
steel.
    (3) Location. (i) The hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion.

[[Page 398]]

    (ii) The brake shaft shall be located on end of car, to the left of 
and not less than 17 nor more than 22 inches from center.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the brakes from right to 
left side on steel or steel-underframe cars with platform end sills in 
service July 1, 1911, except when such appliances are renewed, at which 
time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (iv) Carriers are not required to change the location of brake 
wheels and brake shafts on cars in service July 1, 1911, where the 
appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, except that 
when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to comply with 
the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) There shall be not less than 4 inches 
clearance around rim of brake wheel.
    (ii) Outside edge of brake wheel shall be not less than 4 inches 
from a vertical plane parallel with end of car and passing through the 
inside face of knuckle when closed with coupler horn against the buffer 
block or end sill.
    (iii) Top brake-shaft support shall be fastened with not less than 
\1/2\-inch bolts or rivets. (See plate A.)
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC01AP91.005


[[Page 399]]


    (iv) A brake-shaft step shall support the lower end of brake shaft. 
A brake-shaft step which will permit the brake chain to drop under the 
brake shaft shall not be used. U-shaped form of brakeshaft step is 
preferred. (See plate A.)
    (v) Brake shaft shall be arranged with a square fit at its upper end 
to secure the hand-brake wheel; said square fit shall be not less than 
seven-eighths of an inch square. Square-fit taper, nominally 2 in 12 
inches. (See plate A.)
    (vi) Brake chain shall be of not less than \3/8\-, preferably \7/
16\-, inch wrought iron or steel, with a link on the brakerod end of not 
less than \7/16\-, preferably \1/2\-, inch wrought iron or steel, and 
shall be secured to brake-shaft drum by not less than \1/2\-inch hexagon 
or square-headed bolt. Nut on said bolt shall be secured by riveting end 
of bolt over nut. (See plate A.)
    (vii) Lower end of brake shaft shall be provided with a trunnion of 
not less than \3/4\-, preferably 1, inch in diameter extending through 
brake-shaft step and held in operating position by a suitable cotter or 
ring. (See plate A.)
    (viii) Brake-shaft drum shall be not less than 1\1/2\ inches in 
diameter. (See plate A.)
    (ix) Brake ratchet wheel shall be secured to brake shaft by a key or 
square fit; said square fit shall be not less than 1\5/16\ inches 
square. When ratchet wheel with square fit is used, provision shall be 
made to prevent ratchet wheel from rising on shaft to disengage brake 
pawl. (See plate A.)
    (x) Brake ratchet wheel shall be not less than 5\1/4\, preferably 
5\1/2\, inches in diameter and shall have not less than 14, preferably 
16, teeth. (See plate A.)
    (xi) If brake ratchet wheel is more than 36 inches from brake wheel, 
a brake-shaft support shall be provided to support this extended upper 
portion of brake shaft; said brake-shaft support shall be fastened with 
not less than \1/2\-inch bolts or rivets.
    (xii) The brake pawl shall be pivoted upon a bolt or rivet not less 
than five-eighths of an inch in diameter, or upon a trunnion secured by 
not less than \1/2\-inch bolt or rivet, and there shall be a rigid metal 
connection between brake shaft and pivot of pawl.
    (xiii) Brake wheel shall be held in position on brake shaft by a nut 
on a threaded extended end of brake shaft; said threaded portion shall 
be not less than three-fourths of an inch in diameter; said nut shall be 
secured by riveting over or by the use of a lock nut or suitable cotter.
    (xiv) Brake wheel shall be arranged with a square fit for brake 
shaft in hub of said wheel; taper of said fit, nominally 2 in 12 inches. 
(See plate A.)
    (b) Brake step. If brake step is used, it shall be not less than 28 
inches in length. Outside edge shall be not less than 8 inches from face 
of car and not less than 4 inches from a vertical plane parallel with 
end of car and passing through the inside face of knuckle when closed 
with coupler horn against the buffer block or end sill.
    (1) Manner of application. Brake step shall be supported by not less 
than two metal braces having a minimum cross-sectional area \3/8\ by 
1\1/2\ inches or equivalent, which shall be securely fastened to body of 
car with not less than \1/2\-inch bolts or rivets.
    (c) Running boards--(1) Number. One longitudinal running board. On 
outside-metal-roof cars two latitudinal extensions.
    (2) Dimensions. Longitudinal running board shall be not less than 18 
and preferably 20 inches in width. Latitudinal extensions shall be not 
less than 24 inches in width. Wooden running boards or extensions 
hereafter installed shall be constructed of wood not less than 1\1/8\ 
inches in thickness.
    (3) Location. Full length of car, center of roof. On outside-metal-
roof cars there shall be two latitudinal extensions from longitudinal 
running board to ladder locations, except on refrigerator cars where 
such latitudinal extensions cannot be applied on account of ice hatches.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) Running board shall be continuous 
from end to end and not cut or hinged at any point: Provided, That the 
length and width of running board may be made up of a number of pieces 
securely fastened to saddle-blocks with screws, bolts, or rivets.
    (ii) The ends of longitudinal running board shall be not less than 6 
nor more than 10 inches from a vertical plane

[[Page 400]]

parallel with end of car and passing through the inside face of knuckle 
when closed with coupler-horn against the buffer-block or endsill; and 
if more than 4 inches from edge of roof of car, shall be securely 
supported their full width by substantial metal braces.
    (iii) Running board shall be securely fastened to car and be made of 
wood or of material which provides the same as or a greater degree of 
safety than wood of 1\1/8\ inches thickness. When made of material other 
than wood the tread surface shall be of anti-skid design and constructed 
with sufficient open space to permit the elimination of snow and ice 
from the tread surface.
    (d) Sill steps--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum cross-sectional area \1/2\ by 1\1/2\ inches, 
or equivalent, of wrought iron or steel. Minimum length of tread, 10, 
preferably 12, inches. Minimum clear depth, 8 inches.
    (3) Location. (i) One near each end of each side of car, so that 
there shall be not more than 18 inches from end of car to center of 
tread of sill step.
    (ii) Outside edge of tread of step shall be not more than 4 inches 
inside of face of side of car, preferably flush with side of car.
    (iii) Tread shall be not more than 24, preferably not more than 22, 
inches above the top of rail.
    (iv) Carriers are not required to change location of sill steps on 
cars in service July 1, 1911, where the appliances are within 3 inches 
of the required location, except that when cars undergo regular repairs 
they must then be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) Sill steps exceeding 21 inches in 
depth shall have an additional tread.
    (ii) Sill steps shall be securely fastened with not less than \1/2\-
inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) and riveted over, or with 
not less than \1/2\-inch rivets.
    (e) Ladders--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Minimum clear length of tread: Side ladders 16 
inches; end ladders 14 inches. Maximum spacing between ladder treads, 19 
inches.
    (ii) Top ladder tread shall be located not less than 12 nor more 
than 18 inches from roof at eaves.
    (iii) Spacing of side ladder treads shall be uniform within a limit 
of 2 inches from top ladder tread to bottom tread of ladder.
    (iv) Maximum distance from bottom tread of side ladder to top tread 
of sill step, 21 inches.
    (v) End ladder treads shall be spaced to coincide with treads of 
side ladders, a variation of 2 inches being allowed. Where construction 
of car will not permit the application of a tread of end ladder to 
coincide with bottom tread of side ladder, the bottom tread of end 
ladder must coincide with second tread from bottom of side ladder.
    (vi) Hardwood treads, minimum dimensions 1\1/2\ by 2 inches.
    (vii) Iron or steel treads, minimum diameter five-eighths of an 
inch.
    (viii) Minimum clearance of treads, 2, preferably 2\1/2\, inches.
    (3) Location. (i) One on each side, not more than 8 inches from 
right end of car; one on each end, not more than 8 inches from left side 
of car; measured from inside edge of ladder stile or clearance of ladder 
treads to corner of car.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of ladders on 
cars in service July 1, 1911, where the appliances are within 3 inches 
of the required location, except that when cars undergo regular repairs 
they must then be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the end ladders on steel 
or steel underframe cars with platform end sill, in service July 1, 
1911, except when such appliances are renewed, at which time they must 
be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) Metal ladders without stiles near 
corners of cars shall have foot guards or upward projections not less 
than 2 inches in height near inside end of bottom treads.
    (ii) Stiles of ladders, projecting 2 or more inches from face of 
car, will serve as foot guards.
    (iii) Ladders shall be securely fastened with not less than \1/2\-
inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) and riveted over, or with 
not less than \1/2\-inch rivets. Three-eighths-inch bolts

[[Page 401]]

may be used for wooden treads which are gained into stiles.
    (f) End ladder clearance. (1) No part of car above end sills within 
30 inches from side of car, except buffer block, brake shaft, brake 
wheel, brake step, running board or uncoupling lever shall extend to 
within 12 inches of a vertical plane parallel with end of car and 
passing through the inside face of knuckle when closed with coupler horn 
against the buffer block or end sill, and no other part of end of car or 
fixtures on same above end sills, other than exceptions herein noted, 
shall extend beyond the outer face of buffer block.
    (2) Carriers are not required to make changes to secure additional 
end-ladder clearance on cars in service July 1, 1911, that have 10 or 
more inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until 
car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of car, 
at which time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (g) Roof handholds--(1) Number. (i) One over each ladder.
    (ii) One right-angle handhold may take the place of two adjacent 
specified roof handholds, provided the dimensions and locations 
coincide, and that an extra leg is securely fastened to car at point of 
angle.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 16 inches. Minimum clearance, 2, 
preferably 2\1/2\ inches.
    (3) Location. (i) On roof of car, one parallel to treads of each 
ladder, not less than 8 nor more than 15 inches from edge of roof, 
except on refrigerator cars where ice hatches prevent, when location may 
be nearer edge of roof.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handhold under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Roof handholds shall be securely fastened 
with not less than \1/2\-inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) 
and riveted over, or with not less than \1/2\-inch rivets.
    (h) Side handholds--(1) Number. Four. (Tread of side ladder is a 
side handhold.)
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 16 inches, preferably 24 inches. 
Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\, inches.
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one near each end on each side of car. 
Side handholds shall be not less than 24 nor more than 30 inches above 
center line of coupler, except as provided above, where tread of ladder 
is a handhold. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 
8 inches from end of car.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds, 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Side handholds shall be securely fastened 
with not less than \1/2\-inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) 
and riveted over, or with not less than \1/2\-inch rivets.
    (i) Horizontal end handholds--(1) Number. Eight or more, four on 
each end of car. (Tread of end ladder is an end handhold.)
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, 
wrought iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 16 inches, preferably 24 
inches.
    (ii) A handhold 14 inches in length may be used where it is 
impossible to use one 16 inches in length.
    (iii) Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\, inches.
    (3) Location. (i) One near each side on each end of car, not less 
than 24 nor more than 30 inches above center line of coupler, except as 
provided above, when tread of end ladder is an end handhold. Clearance 
of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 8 inches from side of 
car.
    (ii) One near each side of each end of car on face of end sill or 
sheathing over

[[Page 402]]

end sill, projecting outward or downward. Clearance of outer end of 
handhold shall be not more than 16 inches from side of car.
    (iii) On each end of cars with platform end sills 6 or more inches 
in width, measured from end post or siding and extending entirely across 
end of car, there shall be one additional end handhold not less than 24 
inches in length, located near center of car, not less than 30 nor more 
than 60 inches above platform end sill.
    (iv) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds, 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Horizontal end handholds shall be 
securely fastened with not less than \1/2\-inch bolts with nuts outside 
(when possible) and riveted over, or with not less than \1/2\-inch 
rivets.
    (j) Vertical end handholds--(1) Number. Two on full-width platform 
end-sill cars, as heretofore described.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 18, preferably 24, inches. Minimum 
clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\, inches.
    (3) Location. (i) One on each end of car opposite ladder, not more 
than 8 inches from side of car; clearance of bottom end of handhold 
shall be not less than 24 nor more than 30 inches above center line of 
coupler.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds, 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Vertical end handholds shall be securely 
fastened with not less than \1/2\-inch bolts with nuts outside (when 
possible) and riveted over, or with not less than \1/2\-inch rivets.
    (k) Uncoupling levers--(1) Number. Two. Uncoupling levers may be 
either single or double, and of any efficient design.
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Handles of uncoupling levers, except those shown 
on plate B or of similar designs, shall be not more than 6 inches from 
sides of car.
    (ii) Uncoupling levers of design shown on plate B and of similar 
designs shall conform to the following prescribed limits:
    (iii) Handles shall be not more than 12, preferably 9, inches from 
sides of cars. Center lift arms shall be not less than 7 inches long.
    (iv) Center of eye at end of center lift arm shall be not more than 
3\1/2\ inches beyond center of eye of uncoupling pin of coupler when 
horn of coupler is against the buffer block or end sill. (See plate B.)

[[Page 403]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC01AP91.006

    (v) Ends of handles shall extend not less than 4 inches below bottom 
of end sill or shall be so constructed as to give a minimum clearance of 
2 inches around handle. Minimum drop of handles shall be 12 inches; 
maximum, 15 inches over all. (See plate B.)
    (vi) Handles of uncoupling levers of the ``rocking'' or ``push-
down'' type shall be not less than 18 inches from top of rail when lock 
block has released knuckle, and a suitable stop shall be provided to 
prevent inside arm from flying up in case of breakage.
    (3) Location. One on each end of car. When single lever is used, it 
shall be placed on left side of end of car.

(Secs. 2, 4, and 6, 27 Stat. 531, as amended; secs, 1 and 3, 32 Stat. 
943, as amended; sec. 6(e) and (f), 80 Stat. 939 (45 U.S.C. 2, 4, 6, 8, 
and 10, 11-16 and 49 U.S.C. 103(c)(1))

[33 FR 19663, Dec. 25, 1968, as amended at 49 FR 26745, June 29, 1984]

Sec. 231.2  Hopper cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends.

    (Cars with sides more than 36 inches above the floor are high-side 
cars.)
    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(a)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion.
    (ii) The brake shaft shall be located on end of car to the left of, 
and not more than 22 inches from, center.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the brakes from right to 
left side on steel or steel-underframe cars with platform end sills, in 
service July 1, 1911, except when such appliances are renewed, at which 
time they must be

[[Page 404]]

made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (iv) Carriers are not required to change the location of brake 
wheels and brake shafts on cars in service July 1, 1911, where the 
appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, except that 
when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to comply with 
the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(4)).
    (b) Brake step. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1 (b)).
    (c) Sill steps. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(d)).
    (d) Ladders--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and other house 
cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(e)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(e)(2)), except that top ladder tread shall be located 
not more than 4 inches from top of car.
    (3) Location. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(e)(3)).
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(e)(4)).
    (e) Side handholds. Same as specified for ``Box and other house 
cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)).
    (f) Horizontal end handholds. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(i)).
    (g) Vertical end handholds. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(j)).
    (h) Uncoupling levers. Same as specified for ``Box and other house 
cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(k)).
    (i) End-ladder clearance. (1) No part of car above end sills within 
30 inches from side of car, except buffer block, brake shaft, brake 
wheel, brake step, or uncoupling lever shall extend to within 12 inches 
of a vertical plane parallel with end of car and passing through the 
inside face of knuckle when closed with coupler horn against the buffer 
block or end sill, and no other part of end of car or fixtures on same 
above end sills, other than exceptions herein noted, shall extend beyond 
the outer face of buffer block.
    (2) Carriers are not required to make changes to secure additional 
end-ladder clearance on cars in service July 1, 1911, that have 10 or 
more inches end-ladder clearance within 30 inches of side of car, until 
car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of car, 
at which time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.

Sec. 231.3  Drop-end high-side gondola cars.

    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(a)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion.
    (ii) The brake shaft shall be located on end of car to the left of 
center.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the brakes from right to 
left side on steel or steel-underframe cars with platform end sills, in 
service July 1, 1911, except when such appliances are renewed, at which 
time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(4)).
    (b) Sill steps. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(d)).
    (c) Ladders--(1) Number. Two.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(e)(2)), except that top ladder tread shall be located 
not more than 4 inches from top of car.
    (3) Location. (i) One on each side, not more than 8 inches from 
right end of car, measured from inside edge of ladder stile or clearance 
of ladder treads to corner of car.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of ladders on 
cars in service July 1, 1911, where the appliances are within 3 inches 
of the required location, except that when cars undergo regular repairs 
they must then be made to comply with the standards prescribed.

[[Page 405]]

    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(e)(4)).
    (d) Side handholds. Same as specified for ``Box and other house 
cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)).
    (e) Horizontal end handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(i)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) One near each side of each end of car on face of 
end sill. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 16 
inches from side of car.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(i)(4)).
    (f) Uncoupling levers. Same as specified for ``Box and other house 
cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(k)).
    (g) End ladder clearance. (1) No part of car above end sills within 
30 inches from side of car, except buffer block, brake shaft, brake 
wheel or uncoupling lever shall extend to within 12 inches of a vertical 
plane parallel with end of car and passing through the inside face of 
knuckle when closed with coupler horn against the buffer block or end 
sill, and no other part of end of car or fixtures on same above end 
sills, other than exceptions noted in this subparagraph, shall extend 
beyond the outer face or buffer block.
    (2) Carriers are not required to make changes to secure additional 
end-ladder clearance on cars in service July 1, 1911, that have 10 or 
more inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until 
car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of car, 
at which time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.

Sec. 231.4  Fixed-end low-side gondola and low-side hopper cars.

    (Cars with sides 36 inches or less above the floor are low-side 
cars.)
    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(a)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion.
    (ii) The brake shaft shall be located on end of car, to the left of 
and not more than 22 inches from center.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the brakes from right to 
left side on steel or steel-underframe cars with platform end sills, in 
service July 1, 1911, except when such appliances are renewed, at which 
time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (iv) Carriers are not required to change the location of brake 
wheels and brake shafts on cars in service July 1, 1911, where the 
appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, except that 
when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to comply with 
the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(4)).
    (b) Brake step. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(b)).
    (c) Sill steps. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(d)).
    (d) Side handholds--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and 
other house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(h)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one near each end on each side of car, 
not less than 24 nor more than 30 inches above center line of coupler, 
if car construction will permit, but handhold shall not project above 
top of side. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 8 
inches from end of car.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on

[[Page 406]]

cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)(4)).
    (e) Horizontal end handholds--(1) Number. Same as specified for 
``Box and other house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(i)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(i)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) One near each side on each end of car, not less 
than 24 nor more than 30 inches above center line of coupler, if car 
construction will permit. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be 
not more than 8 inches from side of car.
    (ii) One near each side of each end of car on face of end sill, 
projecting outward or downward. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall 
be not more than 16 inches from side of car.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(i)(4)).
    (f) Uncoupling levers. Same as specified for ``Box and other house 
cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(k)).
    (g) End-ladder clearance. (1) No part of car above end sills within 
30 inches from side of car, except buffer block, brake shaft, brake 
step, brake wheel or uncoupling lever shall extend to within 12 inches 
of a vertical plane parallel with end of car and passing through the 
inside face of knuckle when closed with coupler horn against the buffer 
block or end sill, and no other part of end of car or fixtures on same 
above end sills, other than exceptions noted in this subparagraph, shall 
extend beyond the outer face of buffer block.
    (2) Carriers are not required to make changes to secure additional 
end-ladder clearance on cars in service July 1, 1911, that have 10 or 
more inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until 
car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of car, 
at which time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.

Sec. 231.5  Drop-end low-side gondola cars.

    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(a)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion.
    (ii) The brake shaft shall be located on end of car to the left of 
center.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the brakes from right to 
left side on steel or steel-underframe cars with platform end sills, in 
service July 1, 1911, except when such appliances are renewed, at which 
time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(4)), provided that top brake-shaft 
support may be omitted.
    (b) Sill steps. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(d)).
    (c) Side handholds--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and 
other house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(h)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one near each end on each side of car, 
not less than 24 nor more than 30 inches above center line of coupler, 
if car construction will permit, but handhold shall not project above 
top of side. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be no more than 8 
inches from end of car.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must

[[Page 407]]

then be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)(4)).
    (d) End handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(i)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one near each side of each end of car 
on face of end sill. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not 
more than 16 inches from side of car.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(i)(4)).
    (e) Uncoupling levers. Same as specified for ``Box and other house 
cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(k)).
    (f) End-ladder clearance. (1) No part of car above end sills within 
30 inches from side of car, except buffer block, brake shaft, brake 
wheel or uncoupling lever shall extend to within 12 inches of a vertical 
plane parallel with end of car and passing through the inside face of 
knuckle when closed with coupler horn against the buffer block or end 
sill, and no other part of end of car or fixtures on same above end 
sills, other than exceptions noted in this subparagraph shall extend 
beyond the outer face of buffer block.
    (2) Carriers are not required to make changes to secure additional 
end-ladder clearance on cars in service July 1, 1911, that have 10 or 
more inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until 
car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of car, 
at which time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.

Sec. 231.6  Flat cars.

    (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped 
the same as flat cars.)
    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231(a)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion.
    (ii) The brake shaft shall be located on the end of car to the left 
of center, or on side of car not more than 36 inches from right-hand end 
thereof.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the brakes from right to 
left side on steel or steel-underframe cars with platform end sills, in 
service July 1, 1911, except when such appliances are renewed, at which 
time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (iv) Carriers are not required to change the location of brake 
wheels and brake shafts on cars in service July 1, 1911, where the 
appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, except that 
when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to comply with 
the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(4)).
    (b) Sill steps. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(d)).
    (c) Side handholds--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and 
other house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(h)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one on face of each side sill near 
each end. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 12 
inches from end of car.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)(4)).

[[Page 408]]

    (d) End handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(i)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one near each side of each end of car 
on face of end sill. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not 
more than 16 inches from side of car.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(i)(4)).
    (e) Uncoupling levers. Same as specified for ``Box and other house 
cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(k)).

Sec. 231.7  Tank cars with side platforms.

    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(a)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion.
    (ii) The brake shaft shall be located on end of car to the left of 
center.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the brakes from right to 
left side on steel or steel-underframe cars with platform end sills in 
service July 1, 1911, except when such appliances are renewed, at which 
time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(4)).
    (b) Sill steps. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(d)).
    (c) Side handholds--(1) Number. Four or more.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(h)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one on face of each side sill near 
each end. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 12 
inches from end of car.
    (ii) If side safety railings are attached to tank or tank bands, 
four additional vertical handholds shall be applied, one as nearly as 
possible over each sill step and securely fastened to tank or tankband.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)(4)).
    (d) End handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(i)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one near each side of each end of car 
on face of end sill. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not 
more than 16 inches from side of car.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(i)(4)).
    (e) Tank-head handholds--(1) Number. Two. (Not required if safety 
railing runs around ends of tank.)
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\, inches. Clear 
length of handholds shall extend to within 6 inches of outer diameter of 
tank at point of application.
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one across each head of tank not less 
than 30 nor more than 60 inches above platform.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the

[[Page 409]]

required location, except that when cars undergo regular repairs they 
must then be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Tankhead handholds shall be securely 
fastened.
    (f) Safety railings--(1) Number. One continuous safety railing 
running around sides and ends of tank, securely fastened to tank or tank 
bands at ends and sides of tank; or two running full length of tank at 
sides of cars supported by posts.
    (2) Dimensions. Not less than three-fourths of an inch, iron.
    (3) Location. Running full length of tank either at side supported 
by posts or securely fastened to tank or tank bands, not less than 30 
nor more than 60 inches above platform.
    (4) Manner of application. Safety railings shall be securely 
fastened to tank body, tank bands, or posts.
    (g) Uncoupling levers. Same as specified for ``Box and other house 
cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(k)).
    (h) End-ladder clearance. (1) No part of car above end sills within 
30 inches from side of car, except buffer block, brake shaft, brake-
shaft brackets, brake wheel or uncoupling level shall extend to within 
12 inches of a vertical plane parallel with end of car and passing 
through the inside face of knuckle when closed with coupler horn against 
the buffer block or end sill, and no other part of end of car or 
fixtures on same above end sills, other than exceptions noted in this 
subparagraph, shall extend beyond the outer face of buffer block.
    (2) Carriers are not required to make changes to secure additional 
end-ladder clearance on cars in service July 1, 1911, that have 10 or 
more inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until 
car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of car, 
at which time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.

Sec. 231.8  Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side 
          sills and end platforms.

    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(a)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion.
    (ii) The brake shaft shall be located on end of car to the left of 
center.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the brakes from right to 
left side on steel or steel-underframe cars with platform end sills, in 
service July 1, 1911, except when such appliances are renewed, at which 
time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(4)).
    (b) Running boards--(1) Number. One continuous running board around 
sides and ends; or two running full length of tank, one on each side.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum width on sides, 10 inches. Minimum width on 
ends, 6 inches.
    (3) Location. Continuous around sides and ends of cars. On tank cars 
having end platforms extending to bolsters, running boards shall extend 
from center to center of bolsters, one on each side.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) If side running boards are applied 
below center of tank, outside edge of running boards shall extend not 
less than 7 inches beyond bulge of tank.
    (ii) The running boards at ends of car shall be not less than 6 
inches from a point vertically above the inside face of knuckle when 
closed with coupler horn against the buffer block, end sill or back 
stop.
    (iii) Running boards shall be securely fastened to tank or tank 
bands.
    (c) Sill steps--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(d)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(d)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) One near each end on each side under side 
handhold.
    (ii) Outside edge of tread of step shall be not more than 4 inches 
inside of face of side of car, preferably flush with side of car.

[[Page 410]]

    (iii) Tread shall be not more than 24, preferably not more than 22, 
inches above the top of rail.
    (iv) Carriers are not required to change the location of sill steps 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, where the appliances are within 3 
inches of the required location, except that when cars undergo regular 
repairs they must then be made to comply with the standards prescribed 
in said order.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(d)(4)).
    (d) Ladders. (If running boards are so located as to make ladders 
necessary.)
    (1) Number. Two on cars with continuous running boards. Four on cars 
with side running boards.
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Minimum clear length of tread, 10 inches. 
Maximum spacing of treads, 19 inches. Hardwood treads, minimum 
dimensions, 1\1/2\ by 2 inches.
    (ii) Wrought iron or steel treads, minimum diameter five-eighths of 
an inch. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\, inches.
    (3) Location. On cars with continuous running boards, one at right 
end of each side. On cars with side running boards, one at each end of 
each running board.
    (4) Manner of application. Ladders shall be securely fastened with 
not less than \1/2\-inch bolts or rivets.
    (e) Side handholds--(1) Number. Four or more.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(h)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one on face of each side sill near 
each end on tank cars with short side sills, or one attached to top of 
running board projecting outward above sill steps or ladders on tank 
cars without side sills. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not 
more than 12 inches from end of car.
    (ii) If side safety railings are attached to tank or tank bands four 
additional vertical handholds shall be applied, one as nearly as 
possible over each sill step and securely fastened to tank or tank 
bands.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)(4)).
    (f) End handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(i)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one near each side of each end of car 
on face of end sill. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not 
more than 16 inches from side of car.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(i)(4)).
    (g) Tank-head handholds--(1) Number. Two. (Not required if safety 
railing runs around ends of tank.)
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\, inches.
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one across each head of tank not less 
than 30 nor more than 60 inches above platform on running board. Clear 
length of handholds shall extend to within 6 inches of outer diameter of 
tank at point of application.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 7, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Tankhead handholds shall be securely 
fastened.
    (h) Safety railings--(1) Number. One running around sides and ends 
of tank or two running full length of tank.

[[Page 411]]

    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, seven-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clearance, 2\1/2\ inches.
    (3) Location. Running full length of tank, not less than 30 nor more 
than 60 inches above platform or running board.
    (4) Manner of application. Safety railings shall be securely 
fastened to tank or tank bands and secured against end shifting.
    (i) Uncoupling levers. Same as specified for ``Box and other house 
cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(k)).
    (j) End-ladder clearance. (1) No part of car above end sills within 
30 inches from side of car, except buffer block, brake shaft, brake-
shaft brackets, brake wheel, running boards or uncoupling lever shall 
extend to within 12 inches of a vertical plane parallel with end of car 
and passing through the inside face of knuckle when closed with coupler 
horn against the buffer block or end sill, and no other part of end of 
car or fixtures on same, above end sills, other than exceptions herein 
noted, shall extend beyond the outer face of buffer block.
    (2) Carriers are not required to make changes to secure additional 
end-ladder clearance on cars in service July 1, 1911, that have 10 or 
more inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until 
car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of car, 
at which time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.

Sec. 231.9  Tank cars without end sills.

    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(a)(2)).
    (3) Location. Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion. The brake shaft shall be located 
on end of car to the left of center.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(4)).
    (b) Brake step. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(b)).
    (c) Running boards--(1) Number. One.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum width on sides, 10 inches. Minimum width on 
ends, 6 inches.
    (3) Location. Continuous around sides and ends of tank.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) If running boards are applied below 
center of tank, outside edge of running boards shall extend not less 
than 7 inches beyond bulge of tank.
    (ii) Running boards at ends of car shall be not less than 6 inches 
from a point vertically above the inside face of knuckle when closed 
with coupler horn against the buffer block, end sill or back stop.
    (iii) Running boards shall be securely fastened to tank or tank 
bands.
    (d) Sill steps--(1) Number. Four. (If tank has high running boards, 
making ladders necessary, sill steps must meet ladder requirements.)
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(d)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) One near each end on each side, flush with outside 
edge of running board as near end of car as practicable.
    (ii) Tread not more than 24, preferably not more than 22, inches 
above the top of rail.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, where the appliances are within 3 
inches of the required location, except that when cars undergo regular 
repairs they must then be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) Steps exceeding 18 inches in depth 
shall have an additional tread and be laterally braced.
    (ii) Sill steps shall be securely fastened with not less than \1/2\-
inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) and, riveted over, or with 
\1/2\-inch rivets.
    (e) Side handholds--(1) Number. Four or more.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(h)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one near each end on each side of car 
over sill step on running board, not more than 2

[[Page 412]]

inches back from outside edge of running board, projecting downward or 
outward.
    (ii) Where such side handholds are more than 18 inches from end of 
car, an additional handhold must be placed near each end on each side 
not more than 30 inches above center line of coupler.
    (iii) Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 12 
inches from end of car.
    (iv) If safety railings are on tank, four additional vertical 
handholds shall be applied, one over each sill step on tank.
    (v) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds on 
cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)(4)).
    (f) End handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(i)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one near each side on each end of car 
on running board, not more than 2 inches back from edge of running board 
projecting downward or outward, or on end of tank not more than 30 
inches above center line of coupler.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(i)(4)).
    (g) Safety railings--(1) Number. One.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, seven-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clearance, 2\1/2\ inches.
    (3) Location. Safety railings shall be continuous around sides and 
ends of car, not less than 30 nor more than 60 inches above running 
board.
    (4) Manner of application. Safety railings shall be securely 
fastened to tank or tank bands, and secured against end shifting.
    (h) Uncoupling levers--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and 
other house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(k)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(k)(2)), except that minimum length of uncoupling lever 
shall be 42 inches, measured from center line of end of car to handle of 
lever.
    (3) Location. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(k)(3)), except that uncoupling lever shall be not more 
than 30 inches above center line of coupler.
    (i) End-ladder clearance. (1) No part of car above buffer block 
within 30 inches from side of car, except brake shaft, brake-shaft 
brackets, brake wheel or uncoupling lever shall extend to within 12 
inches of a vertical plane parallel with end of car and passing through 
the inside face of knuckle when closed with coupler horn against the 
buffer block or back stop, and no other part of end of car or fixtures 
on same, above buffer block, other than exceptions herein noted, shall 
extend beyond the face of buffer block.
    (2) Carriers are not required to make changes to secure additional 
end-ladder clearance on cars in service July 1, 1911, that have 10 or 
more inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until 
car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of car, 
at which time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.

Sec. 231.10  Caboose cars with platforms.

    Note: a. The term ``bottom of car'' as used in Sec. 231.10 is 
construed to mean ``bottom of side-sill or sheathing over side-sill.''
    b. The term ``corner of car'' as used in Sec. 231.10 is construed to 
mean the ``line at inner edge of platform formed by the intersection of 
the side and end of car.''

    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. (i) Each caboose car shall be equipped 
with an efficient hand brake which shall operate in harmony with the 
power brake thereon.

[[Page 413]]

    (ii) The hand brake may be of any efficient design, but must provide 
the same degree of safety as the design shown on plate A.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(a)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion.
    (ii) The brake shaft on caboose cars with platforms shall be located 
on platform to the left of center.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the brakes from right to 
left side on steel or steel-underframe cars with platform end sills, in 
service July 1, 1911, except when such appliances are renewed, at which 
time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(4)).
    (b) Running boards--(1) Number. One longitudinal running board.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(c)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Full length of car, center of roof. (On caboose 
cars with cupolas, longitudinal running boards shall extend from cupola 
to ends of roof.)
    (ii) Outside - metal - roof - cars shall have latitudinal extensions 
leading to ladder locations.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(c)(4)). See note below.
    (c) Ladders--(1) Number. Two.
    (2) Dimensions. None specified.
    (3) Location. One on each end.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as (see Sec. 231.1(e)(4)). See note 
below.
    (d) Roof handholds--(1) Number. One over each ladder. Where stiles 
of ladders extend 12 inches or more above roof, no other roof handholds 
are required.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(g)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) On roof of caboose in line with and running 
parallel to treads of ladder, not less than 8 nor more than 15 inches 
from edge of roof.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(g)(4)). See note below.
    (e) Cupola handholds--(1) Number. One or more.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\ inches.
    (3) Location. (i) One continuous handhold extending around top of 
cupola not more than 3 inches from edge of cupola roof.
    (ii) Four right-angle handholds, one at each corner, not less than 
16 inches in clear length from point of angle, may take the place of the 
one continuous handhold specified, if locations coincide.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Cupola handholds shall be securely 
fastened with not less than \1/2\-inch bolts with nuts outside and 
riveted over or with not less than \1/2\-inch rivets. See note below.
    (f) Side handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 36 inches. Minimum clearance, 2, 
preferably 2\1/2\, inches.
    (3) Location. (i) One near each end on each side of car, curving 
downward toward center of car from a point not less than 30 inches above 
platform to a point not more than 8 inches from bottom of car. Top end 
of handhold shall be not more than 8 inches from outside face of end 
sheathing.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the

[[Page 414]]

appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, except that 
when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to comply with 
the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)(4)).
    (g) End handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(i)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one near each side on each end of car 
on face of platform end sill. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall 
be not more than 16 inches from end of platform end sill.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(i)(4)).
    (h) End-platform handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\ inches.
    (3) Location. (i) One right-angle handhold on each side of each end 
extending horizontally from door post to corner of car at approximate 
height of platform rail, then downward to within 12 inches of bottom of 
car.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Handholds shall be securely fastened with 
bolts, screws, or rivets.
    (i) Caboose-platform steps. Safe and suitable box steps leading to 
caboose platforms shall be provided at each corner of caboose. Lower 
tread of step shall be not more than 24 inches above top of rail.
    (j) Uncoupling levers. Same as specified for ``Box and other house 
cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(k)).

    Note: Running boards may be omitted from Caboose Cars with platforms 
built after June 1, 1970, when each of the following conditions have 
been met:
    (1) That ladders, roof handholds (including ladder extensions) and 
cupola handholds as specified in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this 
Sec. 231.10 are also omitted.
    (2) That an appropriate notice be posted in protective manner or 
stenciled on interior of caboose stating ``operating employees are 
prohibited under all conditions from occupying the roof of this 
caboose.''
    (3) That a safe means must be provided to assure the safety of an 
operating employee when required to clean or maintain windows of a 
caboose without running boards.
    (4) That the following additional safety appliances as specified be 
securely installed at the outer edge of each platform:
    (a) Safety railing
    (i) Number:
Horizontal--Four (4), two (2) upper and two (2) lower.
Vertical--Four (4).
    (ii) Dimensions:
Minimum diameter--One (1) inch wrought iron, steel, or other material of 
equivalent strength.
Minimum clearance--Four (4), preferably six (6) inches except at brace 
and fastening locations.

    (iii) Location:
Vertical--One (1) at each corner of car extending from platform end sill 
to level of lower horizontal safety railing or to suitable bracket at 
roof.
Horizontal--Upper: Across each end of car near outer edge securely 
braced with vertical supports not less than 48 nor more than 54 inches 
above top of platform extending not less than full width of platform 
excluding hand brake stanchion area.
Horizontal--Lower: Across each end of car near outer edge securely 
braced with vertical supports not less than 36 nor more than 42 inches 
above top of platform excluding hand brake stanchion area. An opening 
may be provided near center. Such opening shall be provided with a 
secure safety chain(s) not less than \1/4\-inch diameter wrought iron, 
or steel, or other secure suitable closure.
    (iv) Manner of application:
Safety railing shall be securely fastened with \1/2\-inch bolts or 
rivets when possible and securely supported. A weld at connection of 
vertical and horizontal safety railing and vertical supports is 
permissible when those appliances are fabricated as a single unit.
    (b) Kick plates
    (i) Number: Four (4).

[[Page 415]]

    (ii) Dimensions:

Minimum thickness 10-gauge wrought iron, steel or other material of 
equivalent strength.
Width--Minimum 24 inches.
Height--Minimum 24 inches.

    (iii) Location: One near each side on each and. Outer edge not more 
than 12 inches from adjacent vertical safety railing with bottom edge 
near top of platform. Hand brake stand may serve as part of kick plate.
    (iv) Manner of application: Securely fastened by \1/2\-inch bolts or 
rivets, or weld.
    (v) Vertical hand rail supports spaced not more than eighteen (18) 
inches apart may be used in lieu of kick plates.
    (5) That stove pipe shall be secured to prevent turning.
    (6) That windows shall be laminated safety-type glass or equivalent.
    Existing caboose cars with platforms. Running boards may be removed 
from Caboose Cars with Platforms built or under construction on or 
before June 1, 1970, when each of the following conditions have been 
met:
    (1) That ladder treads above safety railing, roof handholds 
including ladder extensions, and cupola handholds specified in 
paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of this Sec. 231.10 are removed.
    (2) That an appropriate notice be posted in protective manner or 
stenciled in interior of caboose stating ``operating employees are 
prohibited under all conditions from occupying the roof of this 
caboose.''
    (3) That a safe means must be provided to assure the safety of an 
operating employee when required to clean or maintain windows of a 
caboose without running boards.
    (4) That end platform safety railing and handhold arrangement will 
be deemed to meet requirements except as to upper safety railing and 
kick plates, when those appliances are not provided. When vertical 
supports are not more than twenty-four (24) inches apart, such supports 
may be used in lieu of kick plates.
    (5) That the following additional safety appliances (when not so 
provided) shall be securely installed at outer edge of each platform:
    (a) Safety railing.
    (i) Number:
Horizontal upper--Two (2).
    (ii) Dimensions:
Minimum diameter--One (1) inch wrought iron, steel, or other material of 
equivalent strength.
Minimum clearance--Four (4), preferably six (6) inches except at brace 
and fastening locations.
    (iii) Location:

Horizontal--Upper: Across each end of car near outer edge securely 
braced with vertical supports not less than 48 nor more than 54 inches 
above top of platform extending not less than full width of platform 
excluding hand brake stanchion area. Ladder tread not more than two (2) 
inches below level of upper safety railing may serve as a portion of 
said safety railing.

    (b) Kick plates or vertical supports--Same as provided for caboose 
cars with platforms built after June 1, 1970, this note. See above.
    (6) That stove pipe should be secured to prevent turning.
    (7) Cupola or bay windows shall be laminated safety-type glass or 
equivalent and all other caboose windows shall be so provided on or 
before June 1, 1975.

[33 FR 19663, Dec. 25, 1968, as amended at 35 FR 10149, June 20, 1970]

Sec. 231.11  Caboose cars without platforms.

    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(a)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion.
    (ii) The brake shaft on caboose cars without platforms shall be 
located on end of car to the left of center.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the brakes from right to 
left side on steel or steel-underframe cars with platform end sills, in 
service July 1, 1911, except when such appliances are renewed, at which 
time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(4)).
    (b) Brake step. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(b)).
    (c) Running boards--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and 
other house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(c)(1)).
    (2) Dimension. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(c)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Full length of car, center of roof. (On caboose 
cars with cupolas, longitudinal running boards shall extend from cupola 
to ends of roof.)
    (ii) Outside-metal-roof cars shall have latitudinal extensions 
leading to ladder locations.

[[Page 416]]

    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(c)(4)).
    (d) Sill steps. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(d)).
    (e) Side-door steps--(1) Number. Two. (If caboose has side doors.)
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum length, 5 feet. Minimum width, 6 inches. 
Minimum thickness of tread, 1\1/2\ inches. Minimum height of back stop, 
3 inches. Maximum height from top of rail to top of tread, 24 inches.
    (3) Location. One under each side door.
    (4) Manner of application. Side-door steps shall be supported by 2 
iron brackets having a minimum cross-sectional area \7/8\ by 3 inches or 
equivalent, each of which shall be securely fastened to car by not less 
than two \3/4\-inch bolts.
    (f) Ladders--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(e)(2)).
    (3) Location. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(e)(3), except when caboose has side doors, then side 
ladders shall be located not more than 8 inches from doors.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(e)(4)).
    (g) End-ladder clearance. (1) No part of car above end sills within 
30 inches from side of car, except buffer block, brake shaft, brake 
wheel, brake step, running board, or uncoupling lever shall extend to 
within 12 inches of a vertical plane, parallel with end of car and 
passing through the inside face of knuckle when closed with coupler horn 
against the buffer block or end sill, and no other part of end of car or 
fixtures on same above end sills, other than exceptions noted in this 
subparagraph, shall extend beyond the outer face of buffer block.
    (2) Carriers are not required to make changes to secure additional 
end-ladder clearance on cars in service July 1, 1911, that have 10 or 
more inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until 
car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of car, 
at which time they must be made to comply with the standards prescribed.
    (h) Roof handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(g)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) One over each ladder, on roof in line with and 
running parallel to treads of ladder, not less than 8 nor more than 15 
inches from edge of roof.
    (ii) Where stiles of ladders extend 12 inches or more above roof, no 
other roof handholds are required.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Roof handholds shall be securely fastened 
with not less than \1/2\-inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) 
and riveted over, or with not less than \1/2\-inch rivets.
    (i) Cupola handholds--(1) Number. One or more.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eights of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\ inches.
    (3) Location. (i) One continuous cupola handhold extending around 
top of cupola, not more than 3 inches from edge of cupola roof.
    (ii) Four right-angle handholds, one at each corner, not less than 
16 inches in clear length from point of angle, may take the place of the 
one continuous handhold specified, if locations coincide.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Cupola handholds shall be securely 
fastened with not less than \1/2\-inch bolts with nuts outside and 
riveted over or with not less than \1/2\-inch rivets.

[[Page 417]]

    (j) Side handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(h)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal, one near each end on each side of car, 
not less than 24 nor more than 30 inches above center line of coupler. 
Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 8 inches from 
end of car.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.(h)(4)).
    (k) Side-door handholds--(1) Number. Four: Two curved, two straight.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\ inches.
    (3) Location. (i) One curved handhold, from a point at side of each 
door opposite ladder, not less than 36 inches above bottom of car, 
curving away from door downward to a point not more than 6 inches above 
bottom of car.
    (ii) One vertical handhold at ladder side of each door from a point 
not less than 36 inches above bottom of car to a point not more than 6 
inches above level of bottom of door.
    (iii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed.
    (4) Manner of application. Side-door handholds shall be securely 
fastened with not less than \1/2\-inch bolts with nuts outside (when 
possible) and riveted over or with not less than \1/2\-inch rivets.
    (l) Horizontal end handholds--(1) Number. Same as specified for 
``Box and other house cars.'' (See Sec. 231.1(i)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars.'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(i)(2)).
    (3) Location. (i) Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(i)(3)), except that one additional end handhold shall be 
on each end of cars with platform end sills as heretofore described, 
unless car has door in center of end. Said handhold shall be not less 
than 24 inches in length, located near center of car, not less than 30 
nor more than 60 inches above platform end sill.
    (ii) Carriers are not required to change the location of handholds 
on cars in service July 1, 1911, except end handholds under end sills, 
where the appliances are within 3 inches of the required location, 
except that when cars undergo regular repairs they must then be made to 
comply with the standards prescribed in said order.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(i)(4)).
    (m) Vertical end handholds. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(j)).
    (n) Uncoupling levers. Same as specified for ``Box and other house 
cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(k)).

Sec. 231.12  Passenger-train cars with wide vestibules.

    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be 
equipped with an efficient hand brake, which shall operate in harmony 
with the power brake thereon.
    (2) Location. Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion.
    (b) Side handholds--(1) Number. Eight.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, metal. 
Minimum clear length, 16 inches. Minimum clearance, 1\1/4\, preferably 
1\1/2\ inches.
    (3) Location. Vertical, one on each vestibule door post.
    (4) Manner of application. Side handholds shall be securely fastened 
with bolts, rivets, or screws.
    (c) End handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Minimum diameters, five-eighths of an inch, 
wrought iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 16 inches. Minimum 
clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\ inches.

[[Page 418]]

    (ii) Handholds shall be flush with or project not more than 1 inch 
beyond vestibule face.
    (3) Location. Horizontal, one near each side on each end projecting 
downward from face of vestibule end sill. Clearance of outer end of 
handhold shall be not more than 16 inches from side of car.
    (4) Manner of application. End handholds shall be securely fastened 
with bolts or rivets. When marker sockets or brackets are located so 
that they can not be conveniently reached from platforms, suitable steps 
and handholds shall be provided for men to reach such sockets or 
brackets.
    (d) Uncoupling levers. (1) Uncoupling attachments shall be applied 
so they can be operated by a person standing on the ground.
    (2) Minimum length of ground uncoupling attachment, 42 inches, 
measured from center line of end of car to handle of attachment.
    (3) On passenger-train cars used in freight or mixed-train service, 
the uncoupling attachment shall be so applied that the coupler can be 
operated from left side of car.

Sec. 231.13  Passenger-train cars with open-end platforms.

    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be 
equipped with an efficient hand brake, which shall operate in harmony 
with the power brake thereon.
    (2) Location. Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion.
    (b) End handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 16 inches. Minimum clearance, 2, 
preferably 2\1/2\ inches. Handholds shall be flush with or project not 
more than 1 inch beyond surface of end sill.
    (3) Location. Horizontal, one near each side of each end on face of 
platform end sill, projecting downward. Clearance of outer end of 
handhold shall be not more than 16 inches from end of end sill.
    (4) Manner of application. End-handholds shall be securely fastened 
with bolts or rivets.
    (c) End-platform handholds--(1) Number. Four. (Cars equipped with 
safety gates do not require end-platform handholds.)
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\ inches, 
metal.
    (3) Location. Horizontal from or near door post to a point not more 
than 12 inches from corner of car, then approximately vertical to a 
point not more than 6 inches from top of platform. Horizontal portion 
shall be not less than 24 inches in length nor more than 40 inches above 
platform.
    (4) Manner of application. End-platform handholds shall be securely 
fastened with bolts, rivets, or screws.
    (d) Uncoupling levers. (1) Uncoupling attachments shall be applied 
so they can be operated by a person standing on the ground.
    (2) Minimum length of ground uncoupling attachment, 42 inches, 
measured from center of end of car to handle of attachment.
    (3) On passenger-train cars used in freight or mixed-train service 
the uncoupling attachments shall be so applied that the coupler can be 
operated from left side of car.

Sec. 231.14  Passenger-train cars without end platforms.

    (a) Handbrakes--(1) Number. Each passenger-train car shall be 
equipped with an efficient hand brake which shall operate in harmony 
with the power brake thereon.
    (2) Location. Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion.
    (b) Sill steps--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum length of tread, 10, preferably 12, inches. 
Minimum cross-sectional area, \1/2\ by 1\1/2\ inches or equivalent, 
wrought iron or steel. Minimum clear depth, 8 inches.
    (3) Location. (i) One near each end on each side not more than 24 
inches from corner of car to center of tread of sill step.
    (ii) Outside edge of tread of step shall be not more than 2 inches 
inside of face of side of car.
    (iii) Tread shall be not more than 24, preferably not more than 22, 
inches above the top of rail.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) Steps exceeding 18 inches in depth 
shall have an

[[Page 419]]

additional tread and be laterally braced.
    (ii) Sill steps shall be securely fastened with not less than \1/2\-
inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) and riveted over, or with 
not less than \1/2\-inch rivets.
    (c) Side handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 16, preferably 24, inches. Minimum 
clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\, inches.
    (3) Location. Horizontal or vertical, one near each end on each side 
of car over sill step.
    (i) If horizontal, not less than 24 nor more than 30 inches above 
center line of coupler.
    (ii) If vertical, lower end not less than 18 nor more than 24 inches 
above center line of coupler.
    (4) Manner of application. Side handholds shall be securely fastened 
with bolts, rivets or screws.
    (d) End handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 16 inches. Minimum clearance, 2, 
preferably 2\1/2\, inches.
    (3) Location. Horizontal, one near each side on each end projecting 
downward from face of end sill or sheathing. Clearance of outer end of 
handholds shall be not more than 16 inches from side of car.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) Handholds shall be flush with or 
project not more than 1 inch beyond face of end sill.
    (ii) End handholds shall be securely fastened with bolts or rivets.
    (iii) When marker sockets or brackets are located so that they can 
not be conveniently reached from platforms, suitable steps and handholds 
shall be provided for men to reach such sockets or brackets.
    (e) End handrails. (On cars with projecting end sills.)
    (1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\, inches.
    (3) Location. One on each side of each end, extending horizontally 
from doorpost or vestibule frame to a point not more than 6 inches from 
corner of car, then approximately vertical to a point not more than 6 
inches from top of platform end sill; horizontal portion shall be not 
less than 30 nor more than 60 inches above platform end sill.
    (4) Manner of application. End handrails shall be securely fastened 
with bolts, rivets or screws.
    (f) Side-door steps--(1) Number. One under each door.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum length of tread, 10, preferably 12, inches. 
Minimum cross-sectional area, \1/2\ by 1\1/2\ inches or equivalent, 
wrought iron or steel. Minimum clear depth, 8 inches.
    (3) Location. Outside edge of tread of step not more than 2 inches 
inside of face of side of car. Tread not more than 24, preferably not 
more than 22, inches above the top of rail.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) Steps exceeding 18 inches in depth 
shall have an additional tread and be laterally braced.
    (ii) Side-door steps shall be securely fastened with not less than 
\1/2\-inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) and riveted over, or 
with not less than \1/2\-inch rivets.
    (iii) A vertical handhold not less than 24 inches in clear length 
shall be applied above each side-door step on door post.
    (g) Uncoupling levers. (1) Uncoupling attachments shall be applied 
so they can be operated by a person standing on the ground.
    (2) Minimum length of ground uncoupling attachment, 42 inches, 
measured from center line of end of car to handle of attachment.
    (3) On passenger-train cars used in freight or mixed-train service, 
the uncoupling attachment shall be so applied that the coupler can be 
operated from the left side of car.

Sec. 231.15  Steam locomotives used in road service.

    (a) Tender till-steps--(1) Number. Four on tender.
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Bottom tread not less than 8 by 12 inches, 
metal. (May have wooden treads.)
    (ii) If stirrup steps are used, clear length of tread shall be not 
less than 10, preferably 12, inches.

[[Page 420]]

    (3) Location. One near each corner of tender on sides.
    (4) Manner of application. Tender sill-steps shall be securely 
fastened with bolts or rivets.
    (b) Pilot sill-steps--(1) Number. Two.
    (2) Dimensions. Tread not less than 8 inches in width by 10 inches 
in length, metal. (May have wooden treads.)
    (3) Location. One on or near each end of buffer-beam outside of rail 
and not more than 16 inches above rail.
    (4) Manner of application. Pilot sill-steps shall be securely 
fastened with bolts or rivets.
    (c) Pilot-beam handholds--(1) Number. Two.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 14, preferably 16, inches. Minimum 
clearance, 2\1/2\ inches.
    (3) Location. One on each end of buffer-beam. If uncoupling lever 
extends across front end of locomotive to within 8 inches of end of 
buffer-beam, and is seven-eighths of an inch or more in diameter, 
securely fastened, with a clearance of 2\1/2\ inches, it is a handhold.)
    (4) Manner of application. Pilot-beam handholds shall be securely 
fastened with bolts or rivets.
    (d) Side handholds--(1) Number. Six.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, if horizontal, five-eighths of an 
inch; if vertical, seven-eighths of an inch, wrought iron or steel. 
Horizontal, minimum clear length, 16 inches. Vertical, clear length 
equal to approximate height of tank. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 
2\1/2\, inches.
    (3) Location. (i) Horizontal or vertical. If vertical, one on each 
side of tender within 6 inches of rear or on corner; if horizontal, same 
as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)(3)).
    (ii) One on each side of tender near gangway; 1 on each side of 
locomotive at gangway; applied vertically.
    (4) Manner of application. Side handholds shall be securely fastened 
with not less than \1/2\-inch bolts or rivets.
    (e) Rear-end handholds--(1) Number. Two.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Minimum clear length, 14 inches. Minimum clearance, 2, 
preferably 2\1/2\, inches.
    (3) Location. Horizontal, one near each side of rear end of tender 
on face of end sill. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not 
more than 16 inches from side of tender.
    (4) Manner of application. Rear-end handholds shall be securely 
fastened with not less than \1/2\-inch bolts or rivets.
    (f) Uncoupling levers--(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from 
either side.
    (2) Dimensions. Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender 
with handles not more than 12, preferably 9, inches from side of tender 
with a guard bent on handle to give not less than 2 inches clearance 
around handle.
    (3) Location. One on rear end of tender and one on front end of 
locomotive. Handles of front-end leavers shall be not more than 12, 
preferably 9, inches from ends of buffer-beam, and shall be so 
constructed as to give a minimum clearance of 2 inches around handle.
    (4) Manner of application. Uncoupling levers shall be securely 
fastened with bolts or rivets.
    (g) Couplers. Locomotives shall be equipped with automatic couplers 
at rear of tender and front of locomotive.

Sec. 231.16  Steam locomotives used in switching service.

    (a) Footboards--(1) Number. Two or more.
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Minimum width of tread, 10 inches.
    (ii) Minimum height of back stop, 4 inches above tread.
    (iii) Height from top of rail to top of tread, not more than 12 nor 
less than 9 inches.
    (iv) If made of wood, minimum thickness of tread shall be 1\1/2\, 
preferably 2 inches.
    (v) Footboards may be made of material other than wood which 
provides the same as or a greater degree of safety than wood of 1\1/2\ 
inches thickness. When made of material other than wood, the tread 
surface shall be of antiskid design and constructed with sufficient open 
space to permit the elimination of snow and ice from the tread surface.

[[Page 421]]

    (3) Location. Ends or sides. If on ends, they shall extend not less 
than 18 inches outside of guage of straight track, and shall be not more 
than 12 inches shorter than buffer-beam at each end.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) End footboards may be constructed in 
two sections, provided that practically all space on each side of 
coupler is filled; each section shall be not less than 3 feet in length.
    (ii) Footboards shall be securely bolted to two 1- by 4-inch metal 
brackets, provided footboard is not cut or notched at any point.
    (iii) If footboard is cut or notched or in two sections, not less 
than four 1- by 3-inch metal brackets shall be used, two located on each 
side of coupler. Each bracket shall be securely bolted to buffer-beam, 
end sill or tank frame by not less than two \7/8\-inch bolts.
    (iv) If side footboards are used, a substantial handhold or rail 
shall be applied not less than 30 inches nor more than 60 inches above 
tread or footboard.
    (b) Sill steps--(1) Number. Two or more.
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Lower tread of step shall be not less than 8 by 
12 inches, metal. (May have wooden treads.)
    (ii) If stirrup steps are used, clear length of tread shall be not 
less than 10, preferably 12, inches.
    (3) Location. One or more on each side at gangway secured to 
locomotive or tender.
    (4) Manner of application. Sill steps shall be securely fastened 
with bolts or rivets.
    (c) End handholds--(1) Number. Two.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, 1 inch, wrought iron or steel. 
Minimum clearance, 4 inches, except at coupler casting or braces when 
minimum clearance shall be 2 inches.
    (3) Location. One on pilot, buffer-beam; one on rear end of tender, 
extending across front end of locomotive and rear end of tender. Ends of 
handholds shall be not more than 6 inches from ends of buffer-beam or 
end sill, securely fastened at ends.
    (4) Manner of application. End handholds shall be securely fastened 
with bolts or rivets.
    (d) Side handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, seven-eighths of an inch, wrought 
iron or steel. Clear length equal to approximate height of tank. Minimum 
clearance, 2, preferably 2\1/2\ inches.
    (3) Location. Vertical. One on each side of tender near front 
corner; one on each side of locomotive at gangway.
    (4) Manner of application. Side handholds shall be securely fastened 
with bolts or rivets.
    (e) Uncoupling levers--(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from 
either side.
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Handles of front-end levers shall be not more 
than 12, preferably 9, inches from ends of buffer-beam, and shall be so 
constructed as to give a minimum clearance of 2 inches around handle.
    (ii) Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender with handles 
not more than 12, preferably 9, inches from side of tender, with a guard 
bent on handle to give not less than 2 inches clearance around handle.
    (3) Location. One on rear end of tender and one on front end of 
locomotive.
    (f) Handrails and steps for headlights. Switching locomotives with 
sloping tenders with manhole or headlight located on sloping portion of 
tender shall be equipped with secure steps and handrail or with platform 
and handrail leading to such manhole or headlight.
    (g) End-ladder clearance. No part of locomotive or tender except 
draft rigging, coupler and attachments, safety chains, buffer block, 
footboard, brake pipe, signal pipe, steam-heat pipe or arms of 
uncoupling lever shall extend to within 14 inches of a vertical plane 
passing through the inside face of knuckle when closed with horn of 
coupler against buffer block or end sill.
    (h) Couplers. Locomotives shall be equipped with automatic couplers 
at rear of tender and front of locomotive.

Sec. 231.17  Specifications common to all steam locomotives.

    (a) Hand brakes. (1) Hand brakes will not be required on locomotives 
nor on tenders when attached to locomotives.
    (2) If tenders are detached from locomotives and used in special 
service, they shall be equipped with efficient hand brakes.
    (b) Running boards--(1) Number. Two.

[[Page 422]]

    (2) Dimensions. Not less than 10 inches wide. If of wood, not less 
than 1\1/2\ inches in thickness; if of metal, not less than three-
sixteenths of an inch, properly supported.
    (3) Location. One on each side of boiler extending from cab to front 
end near pilot-beam. (Running boards may be in sections. Flat-top 
steamchests may form section of running board.)
    (4) Manner of application. (i) Running boards shall be securely 
fastened with bolts, rivets, or studs.
    (ii) Locomotives having Wootten type boilers with cab located on top 
of boiler more than 12 inches forward from boiler head shall have 
suitable running boards running from cab to rear of locomotive, with 
handrailings not less than 20 nor more than 48 inches above outside edge 
of running boards, securely fastened with bolts, rivets, or studs.
    (c) Handrails--(1) Number. Two or more.
    (2) Dimensions. Not less than 1 inch in diameter, wrought iron or 
steel.
    (3) Location. One on each side of boiler extending from near cab to 
near front end of boiler, and extending across front end of boiler, not 
less than 24 nor more than 66 inches above running board.
    (4) Manner of application. Handrails shall be securely fastened to 
boiler.
    (d) Tenders of Vanderbilt type. (1) Tenders known as the Vanderbilt 
type shall be equipped with running boards; one on each side of tender 
not less than 10 inches in width and one on top of tender not less than 
48 inches in width, extending from coal space to rear of tender.
    (2) There shall be a handrail on each side of top running board, 
extending from coal space to rear of tank, not less than 1 inch in 
diameter and not less than 20 inches in height above running board from 
coal space to manhole.
    (3) There shall be a handrail extending from coal space to within 12 
inches of rear of tank, attached to each side of tank above side running 
board not less than 30 nor more than 66 inches above running board.
    (4) There shall be one vertical end handhold on each side of 
Vanderbilt type of tender, located within 8 inches of rear of tank 
extending from within 8 inches of top of end sill to within 8 inches of 
side handrail. Post supporting rear end of side running board, if not 
more than 2 inches in diameter and properly located, may form section of 
handhold.
    (5) An additional horizontal end handhold shall be applied on rear 
end of all Vanderbilt type of tenders which are not equipped with 
vestibules. Handhold to be located not less than 30 nor more than 66 
inches above top of end sill. Clear length of handhold to be not less 
than 48 inches.
    (6) Ladders shall be applied at forward ends of side running boards.
    (e) Handrails and steps for headlights. (1) Locomotives having 
headlights which can not be safely and conveniently reached from pilot-
beam or steam chests shall be equipped with secure handrails and steps 
suitable for the use of men in getting to and from such headlights.
    (2) A suitable metal end or side ladder shall be applied to all 
tanks more than 48 inches in height, measured from the top of end sill, 
and securely fastened with bolts or rivets.
    (f) Couplers. Locomotives shall be equipped with automatic couplers 
at rear of tender and front of locomotive.

Sec. 231.18  Cars of special construction.

    Cars of construction not covered specifically in the foregoing 
sections in this part, relative to handholds, sill steps, ladders, hand 
brakes and running boards may be considered as of special construction, 
but shall have, as nearly as possible, the same complement of handholds, 
sill steps, ladders, hand brakes, and running boards as are required for 
cars of the nearest approximate type.

Sec. 231.19  Definition of ``Right'' and ``Left.''

    Right or Left refers to side of person when facing end or side of 
car from ground.

Sec. 231.20  Variation in size permitted.

    To provide for the usual inaccuracies of manufacturing and for wear, 
where sizes of metal are specified, a total variation of 5 percent below 
size given is permitted.

[[Page 423]]

Sec. 231.21  Tank cars without underframes.

    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(1)).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(a)(2)).
    (3) Location. Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion. The brake shaft shall be located 
on end of car to the left of center.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(a)(4)).
    (b) End platforms--(1) Number. Two.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum width, ten inches. Minimum thickness, one 
and three-quarters inches.
    (3) Location. One on each end extending across car a distance equal 
to or greater than any other portion of car. Outside edge of end 
platform shall extend not less than seven inches beyond bulge of tank 
head and safety railing.
    (4) Manner of application. End platforms shall be securely fastened 
to the draft sills and be sufficiently rigid to prevent sagging.
    (c) Sill steps. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(d)).
    (d) End platform safety railing--(1) Number. Two.
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum of seven-eighths inch diameter, wrought iron 
or steel, or one and one-quarter inch pipe. Minimum clearance, two and 
one-half inches.
    (3) Location. One safety railing at each end of car shall extend 
horizontally across car not less than thirty-six inches nor more than 
fifty-four inches above end platform and extend downward within three 
inches of the end of the platform. The safety railing shall be located 
not more than six inches from the inside edge of the platform.
    (4) Manner of application. Safety railings shall be supported at 
center of car and at each end by extending downward at the ends and 
attaching to the platform.
    (e) Side railing--(1) Number. Two.
    (2) Dimensions. One and one-quarter inch pipe. Minimum clearance two 
and one-half inches.
    (3) Location. One on each side of car, extending from end platform 
to end platform at a distance of not less than 51 inches from centerline 
of car, except that where break in side railing is necessary for side 
ladder or operating cabinet, the side railing shall be securely attached 
to such ladder and/or cabinet.
    (4) Manner of application. Safety railings shall be securely 
attached to end platforms and supported from the car at intervals not 
exceeding ten feet.
    (f) Side handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(h)(2)).
    (3) Location. Four horizontal; one on face of end platform end, over 
sill step, projecting downward or outward. Clearance of outer end of 
handhold shall be not more than twelve inches from end of car. Vertical 
portion of end platform safety railing shall be considered as a side 
vertical handhold.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as prescribed for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(h)(4)).
    (g) End handholds--(1) Number. Four.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and other house cars'' 
(see Sec. 231.1(i)(2)).
    (3) Location. Horizontal, one near each side of each end of car on 
face of end sill. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall not be more 
than sixteen inches from side of car.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and other 
house cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(i)(4)).
    (h) Uncoupling levers. Same as specified for ``Box and other house 
cars'' (see Sec. 231.1(k)).
    (i) End ladder clearance. No part of car above end sills within 
thirty inches from side of car, except buffer block, brake shaft, brake-
shaft brackets, brake wheel, running boards or uncoupling lever shall 
extend to within twelve inches of a vertical plane parallel with end of 
car and passing through the inside face of knuckle when closed with 
coupler horn against the buffer block or end sill, and no other part of 
end of car or fixtures on same, above end sills, other than exceptions 
herein noted, shall extend beyond the outer face of the buffer block.
    (j) Operating platform, ladder and safety railing--(1) Number. One 
operating

[[Page 424]]

platform, two ladders and safety railing. Not required if all fittings 
used in the loading or unloading of the tank car are accessible from 
ground or end platform.
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Ladder: Ladder stiles, three-eighths by two 
inches or equivalent, wrought iron or steel. One and one-quarter inch 
extra strong pipe will be considered equivalent.
    (ii) Ladder treads minimum diameter, five-eighths of an inch, 
wrought iron or steel.
    (iii) Minimum clear length of treads, fourteen inches.
    (iv) Maximum spacing of treads, nineteen inches.
    (v) Minimum clearance of treads and ladder stiles, two inches, 
preferably two and one-half inches.
    (vi) Operating platform, minimum width, seven inches; minimum 
thickness, one and three-quarters inches.
    (vii) Safety railing, one and one-quarter inch wrought iron or steel 
pipe.
    (3) Location. (i) Operating platform to be of sufficient length to 
provide access to all operating fittings. Ladder to be located on sides 
of car at center.
    (ii) The safety railing shall enclose the operating platform, manway 
and fittings used in the loading and unloading of the tank. Railing 
shall be open only at the ladders where it shall extend in a vertical 
direction down to, and be securely attached to the platform. Maximum 
width of opening, twenty-four inches.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) The ladders shall be securely 
fastened to the operating platform. The lower portion of ladder shall be 
braced in such a manner as to prevent any movement.
    (ii) The operating platforms shall be supported to prevent sagging 
and be securely attached to the tank.
    (iii) The safety railing shall be securely attached to four 
stanchions or corner posts, which shall be securely attached to the tank 
or operating platform.
    (k) Manner of application of safety appliances on tank cars covered 
with jackets. On tanks covered with jackets, metal pads shall be 
securely attached to the shell proper, to which brackets shall be 
fastened for securing the safety appliances attached to the tanks; or, 
the safety appliances (with the exception of the operating platform 
brackets) may be secured to the jackets reinforced with metal pads at 
the point of attachment, which pads shall extend at least two inches 
from the center line of rivet holes. The operating platform brackets 
shall be secured to the jacket reinforced with suitable bands. When the 
safety appliances are attached to the jacket covering of the tank, the 
jacket shall be tightened so that there will be no danger of its 
slipping around.

[33 FR 19663, Dec. 25, 1968, as amended at 34 FR 11974, July 16, 1969]

Sec. 231.22  Operation of track motor cars.

    On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad 
subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or 
permit to be operated on its line track motor cars to pull or haul 
trailers, push trucks, hand cars, or similar cars or equipment.

    Effective Date Note: At 28 FR 7839, Aug. 1, 1963, the effective date 
of Sec. 231.22 was stayed until further notice.

Sec. 231.23  Unidirectional passenger-train cars adaptable to van-type 
          semi-trailer use.

    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Passenger-Train 
Cars Without End-Platforms.''
    (2) Location. Each hand brake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated while car is in motion. The hand brake operating device 
shall be located on the end of car to the left of center.
    (b) Brake step--(1) Number. One (1).
    (2) Dimensions. Not less than twenty-eight (28) inches in length. 
Outside edge not less than eight (8) inches from face of car, except 
when ``A'' frame is used and extends beyond end of car, a platform of 
anti-skid design covering the extended portion of the ``A'' frame may be 
used as brake step.
    (3) Manner of application. Brake step shall be securely fastened to 
car and when additional support is necessary, metal braces having a 
minimum cross-sectional area three-eighths (\3/8\) by one and one-half 
(1\1/2\) inches or equivalent shall be securely fastened to body of car 
with not less than one-half (\1/2\) inch bolts or rivets.
    (c) Sill steps--(1) Number. Two (2).

[[Page 425]]

    (2) Dimensions. Minimum length of tread, ten (10) preferably twelve 
(12) inches. Minimum cross-sectional area, one-half (\1/2\) by one and 
one-half (1\1/2\) inches, or equivalent, wrought iron, steel or other 
metal of equivalent strength. Minimum clear depth, eight (8) inches.
    (3) Location. One (1) near the rear or trailing end of the car on 
each side, not more than twenty-four (24) inches from corner of car to 
center of tread of sill step.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Passenger-Train 
Cars Without End-Platforms.''
    (d) End-clearance. No part of car above end sills except the brake 
step shall extend to within twenty (20) inches of a vertical plane 
parallel with end of car and passing through the outside edge of any 
part of an adjoining car.
    (e) Side handholds--(1) Number. Four (4).
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths (\5/8\) of an inch, 
wrought iron, steel or metal of equivalent strength. Minimum clear 
length, sixteen (16) preferably twenty-four (24) inches. Minimum 
clearance, two (2) preferably two and one-half (2\1/2\) inches.
    (3) Location. Horizontal, two (2) over each sill step. Lower 
handhold shall be not less than twenty-four (24) nor more than thirty 
(30) inches above center line of coupler. Upper handhold shall be not 
less than fifteen (15) nor more than nineteen (19) inches above lower 
handhold. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall be not more than 
eight (8) inches from end of car.
    (4) Manner of application. Side handholds shall be securely fastened 
with not less than one-half (\1/2\) inch bolts with nuts outside (when 
possible) and riveted over, or with not less than one-half (\1/2\) inch 
rivets.
    (f) Horizontal end-handholds--(1) Number. Seven (7).
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths (\5/8\) of an inch, 
wrought iron, steel or other metal of equivalent strength. Minimum clear 
length, sixteen (16) inches. Minimum clearance, two (2) preferably two 
and one-half (2\1/2\) inches.
    (3) Location. End-sill: One (1) near each side at the rear or 
trailing end of car on face of end-sill or sheathing over end-sill, 
projecting outward or downward. Clearance of outer end of handhold shall 
be not more than sixteen (16) inches from side of car.
    (i) Lower: One near each side of the rear or trailing end of car, 
not less than twenty-four (24) nor more than thirty (30) inches above 
center line of coupler.
    (ii) Upper: One (1) near each side at the rear or trailing end of 
car not less than fifteen (15) nor more than nineteen (19) inches above 
lower handholds. Clearance of outer ends of lower and upper handholds 
shall be not more than eight (8) inches from side of car. Lower and 
upper handholds shall be spaced to coincide with corresponding side 
handholds, a variation of two (2) inches being allowed. On front end of 
car there shall be one (1) additional end handhold full length of car 
not less than forty (40) nor more than fifty (50) inches above center 
line of coupler. Clearance of each end of handhold shall be not more 
than eight (8) inches from side of car. When construction will not 
permit the use of a single handhold, four (4) handholds, each not less 
than sixteen (16) inches in length may be used, provided dimensions and 
location coincide.
    (4) Manner of application. End handholds shall be securely fastened 
with not less than one-half (\1/2\) inch bolts with the nuts outside 
(when possible) and riveted over, or with not less than one-half (\1/2\) 
inch rivets. When marker sockets or brackets are located so that they 
cannot be conveniently reached, suitable steps and handholds shall be 
provided for men to reach such sockets or brackets.
    (g) Uncoupling levers. Each car shall be equipped to provide means 
of coupling and uncoupling without the necessity of men going between 
the cars.

[[Page 426]]

Sec. 231.24  Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or 
          more above top of rail. \1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \1\ (a) Each car of this type built or rebuilt after (January 1, 
1976) or under construction prior thereto and placed in service after 
(effective date) shall be equipped as specified in Sec. 231.27(a) 
through (h) and (j) or, if it has roof hatches, as specified in 
Sec. 231.28.
    (b) Each car of this type placed in service after November 23, 1964 
and before (effective date) shall be equipped--
    (1) As specified in Sec. 231.24; or
    (2) As specified in Sec. 231.27(a) through (h) and (j); or
    (3) If it has roof hatches, as specified in Sec. 231.28.
    (c) Each car of this type placed in service before October 22, 1964, 
or under construction on October 22, 1964 and placed in service before 
November 23, 1964, shall be equipped--
    (1) As specified in Sec. 231.1; or
    (2) As specified in Secs. 231.1 and 231.27(i); or
    (3) As specified in Sec. 231.27(a) through (h) and (j); or
    (4) If it has roof hatches, as specified in Sec. 231.28.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    (a) Hand brakes--(1) Number. Same as specified for ``Box and Other 
House Cars.''
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and Other House Cars.''
    (3) Location. Each hand brake shall be located so that it can be 
safely operated from the end-platform. Each brake shaft shall be located 
on end of car to left of center and not more than twenty-four (24) 
inches from left side of car.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and Other 
House Cars.''
    (b) End-platforms--(1) Number. Two (2).
    (2) Dimensions. Width, not less than ten (10) inches. Length, full 
width of car.
    (3) Location. One (1) on each end of car not more than eight (8) 
inches above center sill.
    (4) Manner of application. Each end-platform shall be securely 
supported by not less than four (4) metal braces having a minimum cross 
sectional area three-eighths (\3/8\) by one and one-half (1\1/2\) inches 
or equivalent which shall be securely fastened to body of car with not 
less than one-half (\1/2\) inch bolts or rivets. The outside edge of 
each end-platform shall be not less than six (6) inches from a vertical 
plane parallel with end of car and passing through the inside face of 
knuckle when closed with coupler-horn against the buffer-block or end 
sill and cushioning device (if used) at full buff. End-platform shall be 
made of running board material as specified for ``Box and Other House 
Cars.''
    (c) Sill steps. Same as specified for ``Box and Other House Cars.''
    (d) End-ladder clearance. No part of car above end-sills within 
thirty (30) inches from side of car, except buffer block brake-shaft, 
brake wheel, end-platform, horizontal end handholds, or coupling lever 
shall extend to within twelve (12) inches of a vertical plane parallel 
with end of car and passing through the inside face of knuckle, when 
closed with the coupler horn against the buffer block or end-sill and 
cushioning device (if used) at full buff, and no other part of end of 
car or fixtures on same above end-sill, other than exceptions herein 
noted, shall extend beyond outer face of buffer block.
    (e) Side handholds--(1) Number. Sixteen (16).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Box and Other House Cars.''
    (3) Location. Horizontal: Four (4) near each end and on each side of 
car spaced not more than nineteen (19) inches apart and with the bottom 
handhold located not more than twenty-one (21) inches from top tread of 
sill step, and top handhold shall coincide in height with horizontal 
end-platform handhold, a variation of two (2) inches being allowed. 
Spacing of side handholds shall be uniform within a limit of two (2) 
inches from top handhold to bottom handhold. Clearance of outer ends of 
handholds shall be not more than eight (8) inches from end of car.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and Other 
House Cars,'' except each bottom handhold shall have foot guard or 
upward projection not less than two (2) inches in height near inside 
end.
    (f) Horizontal end handholds--(1) Number. Four (4).
    (2) Dimension. Same as specified for ``Box and Other House Cars.''
    (3) Location. One (1) near each side of each end of car on outer 
edge of end platform, projecting downward with

[[Page 427]]

clearance of outer end not more than sixteen (16) inches from side of 
car.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and Other 
House Cars.''
    (g) Horizontal end-platform handholds--(1) Number. Two (2).
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for ``Horizontal End Handholds'' 
for ``Box and Other House Cars,'' except length shall extend across end 
of car.
    (3) Location. Extending across each end of car, not less than forty-
eight (48) nor more than sixty (60) inches above tread of end-platform 
with clearance at each end of not more than four (4) inches from side of 
car, supported by an extra leg near center of handholds.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Horizontal End 
Handholds'' for ``Box and Other House Cars.''
    (h) Vertical end-handholds--(1) Number. Four (4).
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter five-eighths (\5/8\) of an inch, 
wrought iron or steel. Minimum clearance, two (2), preferably two and 
one-half (2\1/2\) inches.
    (3) Location. One (1) on each side of each end of car, not more than 
four (4) inches from side of car, extending downward from end of 
horizontal end-platform handhold to within eight (8) inches above tread 
of end-platform. One (1) continuous handhold with two (2) right angles, 
or two (2) right angle handholds, may take the place of two (2) 
specified vertical end-handholds and one (1) horizontal end-platform 
handhold, provided the dimensions and locations coincide, and extra legs 
at points of angle and center are provided and securely fastened to car.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified for ``Box and Other 
House Cars.''
    (i) Uncoupling levers. Same as specified for ``Box and Other House 
Cars.''
    (j) Painting and stenciling. (1) That portion of each end of car 
more than fifteen (15) feet above top of rail shall be painted with 
contrasting reflectorized paint and shall bear the words ``No running 
board'' to the left of center and ``Excess height car'' to the right of 
center.
    (2) Lettering to be not less than three (3) inches high. On each 
side-sill near end corner there shall be painted a yellow rectangular 
area with a three-fourths (\3/4\) inch black border containing the words 
``This car excess height--no running board.'' Lettering to be not less 
than one and one-half (1\1/2\) inches high. When car is equipped with 
center sill or underframe cushioning device having more than twelve (12) 
inches longitudinal impact absorbing travel, and a part of the 
uncoupling device and/or brake pipe is located parallel to the exposed 
end of the center sill, such part shall provide at least two (2) inches 
of clearance near the coupler of sufficient length to permit use as an 
emergency handhold during air hose coupling operation and the top of 
exposed ends of sliding center sill shall be coated with anti-skid 
paint.

[33 FR 19663, Dec. 25, 1968, as amended at 40 FR 34347, Aug. 15, 1975]

Sec. 231.25  Track motorcars (self-propelled 4-wheel cars which can be 
          removed from the rails by men).

    (a) Handbrakes (includes foot operated brake). Each track motorcar 
shall be equipped with an efficient handbrake so located that it can be 
safely operated while the car is in motion. Each handbrake shall be 
equipped with a ratchet or other suitable device which will provide a 
means of keeping the brake applied when car is not in motion.

    Note: The requirements of this rule will be satisfied if the ratchet 
or other suitable device operates in connection with at least one 
handbrake on track motorcars that may be equipped with more than one 
such brake.

    (b) Handholds. One or more safe and suitable handholds conveniently 
located shall be provided. Each handhold shall be securely fastened to 
car.
    (c) Sill steps or footboards. Each track motorcar shall be equipped 
with safe and suitable sill steps or footboards conveniently located and 
securely fastened to car when bed or deck of track motorcar is more than 
24 inches above top of rail.
    (d) Couplers. When used to haul other cars, each track motorcar 
shall be equipped with a coupler at each end where such cars are coupled 
(1) which provides a safe and secure attachment, (2) which can be 
coupled or uncoupled

[[Page 428]]

without the necessity of men going between the ends of the cars.

Sec. 231.26  Pushcars.

    (a) Handbrakes. When used to transport persons, each pushcar shall 
be equipped with an efficient handbrake so located that it can be safely 
operated while the car is in motion.
    (b) Handholds (includes handles). Each pushcar shall be provided 
with one or more secure handholds. When used to transport persons, each 
pushcar shall be provided with one or more safe and suitable handholds 
conveniently located above the top of the bed of each pushcar.
    (c) Sill steps or footboards. When used to transport persons, each 
pushcar shall be equipped with safe and suitable sillsteps or footboards 
conveniently located and securely fastened to car, when bed or deck of 
pushcar is more than 24 inches above top of rail.
    (d) Couplers. When moved together with other vehicles, each pushcar 
shall be equipped with a coupler at each end where such vehicles are 
coupled (1) which provides a safe and secure attachment, and (2) which 
can be coupled or uncoupled without the necessity of men going between 
the ends of the cars.

    Note: Sections 231.25 and 231.26 are applicable only when the 
vehicles governed thereby are coupled together and moved together.

Sec. 231.27  Box and other house cars without roof hatches or placed in 
          service after October 1, 1966.

    (a) Handbrakes. The handbrake may be of any efficient design, but 
must provide the same degree of safety as, or a greater degree of safety 
than, the following specifications:
    (1) Number. (i) Each box or other house car without roof hatches 
shall be equipped with an efficient vertical wheel handbrake which shall 
operate in harmony with the power brake thereon.
    (ii) The handbrake may be of any efficient design, but must provide 
a total braking force applied to brake shoes not less than the total 
force applied to the brake shoes by the brake cylinders at 50 pounds per 
square inch.
    (2) Dimensions. (i) The brake wheel may be deep or shallow, of 
malleable iron, wrought iron, steel, or other material of equivalent 
strength.
    (ii) Overall diameter of brake wheel nominally twenty-two (22) 
inches.
    (iii) Depth of brake wheel hub shall be two and five-eighths (2\5/
8\) inches with square taper shaft fit, taper two (2) inches in twelve 
(12) inches with small end of taper fit seven-eighths (\7/8\) inches.
    (iv) Brake wheel and drum shall be arranged so that both will 
revolve when applying and gradually releasing the handbrake. Handbrake 
shall be provided with means to prevent application of the brake by 
winding in a counterclockwise direction.
    (v) Brake shaft shall be arranged with a square fit at its outer end 
to secure the handbrake wheel; said square fit shall be not less than 
seven-eighths (\7/8\) of an inch square. Square-fit taper: Nominally two 
(2) in twelve (12) inches (see Plate A).
    (vi) All chains shall be not less than nine-sixteenths (\9/16\) inch 
BBB coil chain.
    (vii) All handbrake rods shall be not less than three-fourths (\3/
4\) inch diameter.
    (3) Location. (i) The handbrake shall be so located that it can be 
safely operated from horizontal end platform while car is in motion.
    (ii) The brake shaft shall be located on end of car, to the left of 
and not less than seventeen (17) nor more than twenty-two (22) inches 
from center and not less than twenty-six (26) nor more than forty (40) 
inches above top of end-platform tread.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) Brake wheel shall be held in position 
on brake shaft by a nut on a threaded extended end of brake shaft; said 
thread portion shall be not less than three-fourths (\3/4\) of an inch 
in diameter; said nut shall be secured by riveting over or by the use of 
a locknut or suitable cotter.
    (ii) Outside edge of brake wheel shall be not less than four (4) 
inches from a vertical plane parallel with end of car and passing 
through the inside face of knuckle when closed with coupler horn against 
the buffer block or end sill.
    (iii) Handbrake housing shall be securely fastened to car.
    (b) End platforms--(1) Number. Two (2).

[[Page 429]]

    (2) Dimensions. Width not less than eight (8) inches; length, not 
less than sixty (60) inches.
    (3) Location. One (1) centered on each end of car between inner ends 
of handholds not more than eight (8) inches above top of center sill.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) Each end platform shall be securely 
supported by not less than three (3) metal braces having a minimum cross 
sectional area of three-eighths (\3/8\) by one and one-half (1\1/2\) 
inches or equivalent, which shall be securely fastened to body of car 
with not less than one-half (\1/2\) inch bolts or rivets.
    (ii) Where conventional draft gear or cushioning device having 
longitudinal travel less than six (6) inches is used the outside edge of 
each end platform shall be not less than twelve (12) inches from a 
vertical plane parallel with end of car and passing through the inside 
face of knuckle when closed with coupler horn against buffer block. 
Where cushioning device having longitudinal travel six (6) inches or 
more is used the outside edge of each end platform shall be not less 
than six (6) inches from a vertical plane parallel with end of car and 
passing through the inside face of knuckle when closed with end sill and 
cushioning device at full buff. End platform shall be made of wood or of 
material which provides the same as or a greater degree of safety than 
wood of 1\1/8\ inches thickness. When made of material other than wood 
the tread surface shall be of anti-skid design and constructed with 
sufficient open space to permit the elimination of snow and ice from the 
tread surface.
    (c) Sill steps--(1) Number. Four (4).
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum cross-sectional area one-half (\1/2\) by one 
and one-half (1\1/2\) inches, or equivalent, of wrought iron, steel, or 
other material of equivalent strength. Minimum length of tread, ten 
(10), preferably twelve (12) inches. Minimum clear depth, eight (8) 
inches.
    (3) Location. (i) One (1) near each end of each side car, so that 
there shall be no more than eighteen (18) inches from end of car to 
center of tread of sill step.
    (ii) Outside edge of tread of step shall be not more than four (4) 
inches inside of face of side of car, preferably flush with side of car.
    (iii) Tread shall be not more than twenty-four (24), preferably not 
more than twenty-two (22) inches above the top of rail.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) Sill steps exceeding twenty-one (21) 
inches in depth shall have an additional tread.
    (ii) Sill steps shall be securely fastened with not less than one-
half (\1/2\) inch bolts with nuts outside (when possible) and riveted 
over, or with not less than one-half (\1/2\) inch rivets.
    (d) End ladder (appliances) clearance. No part of car above end 
sills within thirty (30) inches from side of car, except buffer block, 
brake shaft, brake wheel, end platform, horizontal end handholds, or 
uncoupling lever shall extend to within twelve (12) inches of a vertical 
plane parallel with end of car and passing through the inside face of 
knuckle, when closed with the coupler horn against the buffer block or 
end sill and cushioning device (if used) at full buff, and no other part 
of end of car or fixtures on same above end sill, other than exceptions 
herein noted, shall extend beyond outer face of buffer block.
    (e) Side handholds--(1) Number. Sixteen (16).
    (2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, five-eighths (\5/8\) of an inch, 
wrought iron, steel, or other material of equivalent strength. Minimum 
clear length, sixteen (16) inches, preferably twenty-four (24) inches. 
Minimum clearance, two (2), preferably two and one-half (2\1/2\) inches.
    (3) Location. Horizontal; four (4) near each end and on each side of 
car spaced not more than nineteen (19) inches apart and with the bottom 
handhold located not more than twenty-one (21) inches from top tread of 
sill step, and top handhold shall coincide in height with top end 
handhold, a variation of two (2) inches being allowed. Spacing of side 
handholds shall be uniform within a limit of two (2) inches from top 
handhold to bottom handhold. Clearance of outer ends of handholds shall 
be not more than eight (8) inches from end of car.
    (4) Manner of application. Side handholds shall be securely fastened 
with not less than one-half (\1/2\) inch bolts with nuts outside (when 
possible) and riveted over, or with not less than

[[Page 430]]

one-half (\1/2\) inch rivets. Each bottom handhold shall have foot guard 
or upward projection not less than two (2) inches in height near inside 
end.
    (f) End handholds--(1) Number. Sixteen (16).
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Minimum diameter, five-eighths (\5/8\) of an 
inch, wrought iron, steel, or other material of equivalent strength.
    (ii) Minimum clear length, sixteen (16) inches, preferably twenty-
four (24) inches.
    (iii) Minimum clearance, two (2) preferably two and one-half (2\1/
2\) inches.
    (3) Location. Horizontal: Four (4) near each side and on each end of 
car spaced not more than nineteen (19) inches apart and with the bottom 
handhold located not more than twenty-one (21) inches from top tread of 
sill step, and top handhold shall coincide in height with end platform 
handholds, a variation of two (2) inches being allowed. Clearance of 
outer ends of handholds shall be not more than eight (8) inches from 
side of car.
    (4) Manner of application. End handholds shall be securely fastened 
with not less than one-half (\1/2\) inch bolts with nuts outside (when 
possible) and riveted over, or with not less than one-half (\1/2\) inch 
rivets. Each bottom handhold shall have foot guard or upward projection 
not less than two (2) inches in height near inside end.
    (g) Horizontal end-platform handholds--(1) Number. Two (2).
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Minimum diameter, five-eighths (\5/8\) of an 
inch, wrought iron, steel, or other material of equivalent strength.
    (ii) Minimum clearance, two (2) preferably two and one-half (2\1/2\) 
inches.
    (iii) Minimum clear length sixty (60) inches. When security of 
attachment requires, an extra supporting leg may be applied near center 
of clear length.
    (3) Location. One (1) on each end of car above end platform. Outer 
legs shall be not more than six (6) inches from inner legs of top end 
handholds. Height above tread of end platform: Not less than forty-eight 
(48) nor more than sixty (60) inches.
    (4) Manner of application. End-platform handholds shall be securely 
fastened with not less than one-half (\1/2\) inch bolts with nuts 
outside (when possible) and riveted over, or with not less than one-half 
(\1/2\) inch rivets.
    (h) Uncoupling levers--(1) Number. Two (2).
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Handles of uncoupling levers, except those shown 
on Plate B or of similar designs, shall be not more than six (6) inches 
from side of car.
    (ii) Uncoupling levers of design shown on Plate B and of similar 
designs shall conform to the following prescribed limits:
    (a) Handles shall be not more than twelve (12), preferably nine (9) 
inches from sides of car. Center lift arms shall be not less than seven 
(7) inches long.
    (b) Center of eye at end of center lift arm shall be not more than 
three and one-half (3\1/2\) inches beyond center of eye of uncoupling 
pin of coupler when horn of coupler is against the buffer block or end 
sill (see Plate B).
    (c) End of handles shall extend not less than four (4) inches below 
bottom of end sill or shall be so constructed as to give a minimum 
clearance of two (2) inches around handle. Minimum drop of handles shall 
be twelve (12) inches; maximum, fifteen (15) inches overall (see Plate 
B).
    (iii) Handles of uncoupling levers of the ``rocking'' or ``push-
down'' type shall be not less than eighteen (18) inches from top of rail 
when lockblock has released knuckle, and a suitable stop shall be 
provided to prevent inside arm from flying up in case of breakage.
    (3) Location. One (1) on each end of car. When single lever is used, 
it shall be placed on left side of end of car.
    (i) Existing box and other house cars without roof hatches. (1) Box 
and other house cars without roof hatches built on or before April 1, 
1966, or under construction prior thereto and placed in service before 
October 1, 1966, shall be deemed equipped as nearly as possible within 
the intent of Sec. 231.1 and of this section when:
    (i) The running board, roof handholds over side and end ladders at 
``A'' end of car and ladder treads above the fourth tread from bottom of 
side and end ladder at ``A'' end are removed;
    (ii) One (1) horizontal end-platform handhold is applied on each end 
of car as specified in this section except the right hand end shall be 
not more than

[[Page 431]]

eight (8) inches from side of car, or where car end contour makes 
impractical the use of a single continuous end handhold, there is 
applied the equivalent consisting of two (2) handholds, the center 
handhold to be a minimum of thirty (30) inches in clear length and the 
handhold to the right to be a minimum of nineteen (19) inches in clear 
length and to extend to within eight (8) inches of the right side of the 
car, such handholds to be not more than twelve (12) inches apart; and
    (iii) With handbrake operated near roof of car: a brake step shall 
be provided as specified in Sec. 231.1 and lettering one and one-half 
(1\1/2\) inches high shall be painted on a yellow background on side 
sill near ``B'' end of car with a three-fourths (\3/4\) inch black 
border containing the words ``Keep Off Roof--No Running Board,'' or with 
handbrake operated from approximate level of top of end sill: roof 
handholds and side and end ladder treads above the fourth tread from the 
bottom of ladders at ``B'' end of car shall be removed and a brake step 
as specified by Sec. 231.1 shall be used with top of tread surface being 
level with or not more than four (4) inches below adjacent end handhold.
    (2) Paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section shall not apply to cars 
equipped with end platforms and end platform handholds.
    (j) Painting and marking. Box and other house cars with roofs 16 
feet and 10 inches or more above top of rail shall be painted and marked 
as follows:
    (1) That portion of each end of the car which is more than fifteen 
(15) feet above top of rail shall be painted with contrasting 
reflectorized paint and bear the words ``excess height car'' in 
lettering not less than three (3) inches high; and
    (2) On each side sill near end corner there shall be painted or 
otherwise displayed a yellow rectangular area with a three-fourths (\3/
4\) inch black border containing the words ``this car excess height'' in 
lettering not less than one and one-half (1\1/2\) inches high.

(Secs. 2, 4, and 6, 27 Stat. 531, as amended; secs, 1 and 3, 32 Stat. 
943, as amended; sec. 6(e) and (f), 80 Stat. 939 (45 U.S.C. 2, 4, 6, 8, 
and 10, 11-16 and 49 U.S.C. 103(c)(1))

[33 FR 19663, Dec. 25, 1968, as amended at 40 FR 34347, Aug. 15, 1975; 
49 FR 26745, June 29, 1984]

Sec. 231.28  Box and other house cars with roof hatches built or placed 
          in service after October 1, 1966.

    The specifications of Sec. 231.27 shall apply except as to the 
following:
    (a) Running boards. Same as specified in Sec. 231.1, except: the end 
of longitudinal running board shall be not less than six (6) inches from 
a vertical plane parallel with end of car and passing through the inside 
face of knuckle when closed with coupler horn against buffer block or 
end sill.
    (b) Ladders--(1) Number. Two (2).
    (2) Dimensions. (i) Minimum clear length of tread: Sixteen (16) 
inches.
    (ii) Maximum spacing between treads nineteen (19) inches.
    (3) Location. One (1) on each end of car not more than eight (8) 
inches from left-hand side.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified in Sec. 231.1.
    (c) Roof handholds--(1) Number. Two (2), one (1) over each ladder.
    (2) Dimensions. Same as specified in Sec. 231.1.
    (3) Location. On roof of car. One (1) parallel to treads of each 
ladder, not less than eight (8) nor more than fifteen (15) inches from 
edge of roof, except on refrigerator cars where ice hatches prevent, 
when location may be nearer edge of roof.
    (4) Manner of application. Same as specified in Sec. 231.1.
    (d) End handholds. (Treads of end ladders are end handholds.) Same 
as specified for Sec. 231.27.
    (e) Existing box and other house cars with roof hatches. Box and 
other house cars with roof hatches built on or before April 1, 1966, or 
under construction prior thereto and placed in service before October 1, 
1966, shall be deemed

[[Page 432]]

equipped as nearly as possible within the intent of Sec. 231.1 and of 
this section when: Equipped as specified in Sec. 231.1, except (1) the 
side ladder treads above the fourth tread from bottom of side ladder 
near ``A'' end of car and roof handhold over the side ladder near ``A'' 
end shall be removed; (2) and (1) end platform handhold shall be 
provided on each end of car as specified in Sec. 231.27(i); and when 
handbrake is operated near roof of car a brake step shall be provided as 
specified by Sec. 231.1 or when handbrake is operated from approximate 
level of top of end sill the roof handhold over side ladder near ``B'' 
end and treads above the fourth tread from bottom of side ladder near 
``B'' end shall be removed and a brake step as specified in Sec. 231.1 
shall be used with top of tread surface level with or not more than four 
(4) inches below adjacent end handhold.

(Secs. 2, 4, and 6, 27 Stat. 531, as amended; secs, 1 and 3, 32 Stat. 
943, as amended; sec. 6(e) and (f), 80 Stat. 939 (45 U.S.C. 2, 4, 6, 8, 
and 10, 11-16 and 49 U.S.C. 103(c)(1))

[33 FR 19663, Dec. 25, 1968, as amended at 49 FR 26745, June 29, 1984]

Sec. 231.29  Road locomotives with corner stairways.

    After September 30, 1979, road locomotives with corner stairway 
openings must be equipped with (a) uncoupling mechanisms that can be 
operated safely from the bottom stairway opening step as well as ground 
level, and (b) the vertical handholds and horizontal end handholds 
prescribed in Sec. 231.30(e) and (g). No part of the uncoupling 
mechanism may extend into the stairway opening or end platform area when 
the mechanism is in its normal position or when it is operated. Each 
carrier shall so equip forty percent (40 percent) of its road 
locomotives by October 1, 1977, seventy percent (70 percent) by October 
1, 1978, and all its road locomotives by October 1, 1979.

[41 FR 37783, Sept. 8, 1976]

Sec. 231.30  Locomotives used in switching service.

    (a) General requirements. (1) Except for steam locomotives equipped 
as provided in Sec. 231.16 of this part, all locomotives used in 
switching service built after March 31, 1977, must be equipped as 
provided in this section.
    (2) Except for steam locomotives equipped as prescribed in 
Sec. 231.16 of this part, all locomotives built prior to April 1, 1977, 
used in switching service after September 30, 1979, shall be equipped as 
provided in this section. Each carrier shall so equip forty percent (40 
percent) of such locomotives by October 1, 1977, seventy percent (70 
percent) by October 1, 1978, and all such locomotives by October 1, 
1979.
    (3) Locomotives without corner stairway openings may not be used to 
perform any switching service after September 30, 1979 except passenger 
car switching service at passenger stations.
    (b) Definitions. (1) Locomotive used in switching service means a 
locomotive regularly assigned to perform yard switching service.
    (2) Switching service means the classification of cars according to 
commodity or destination; assembling of cars for train movements; 
changing the position of cars for purposes of loading, unloading, or 
weighing, placing of locomotives and cars for repair or storage; or 
moving of rail equipment in connection with work service that does not 
constitute a road movement. However, this term does not include movement 
of a train or part of a train within yard limits by the road locomotive 
and the placement of locomotives or cars in a train or their removal 
from a train by the road locomotive while en route to the train's 
destination.
    (3) Safety tread surface means that portion of anti-skid surface of 
a switching step that actually is contacted by a shoe or boot.
    (4) Uncoupling mechanism means the arrangement for operating the 
coupler lock lift, including the uncoupling lever and all other 
appurtenances that facilitate operation of the coupler.
    (c) Switching step--(1) Number. Each locomotive used in switching 
service must have four (4) switching steps. (See Plate A)
    (2) Dimensions. Each such switching step must have--
    (i) On locomotives built after March 31, 1977, a minimum width of 
twenty-four (24) inches and a minimum depth

[[Page 433]]

of twelve (12) inches, except when necessary to accommodate the turning 
arc of a six-wheel truck and its appurtenances, the inside edge of the 
switching step shall have a minimum width of seventeen (17) inches (See 
Plate B);
    (ii) On locomotives built prior to April 1, 1977, a minimum width of 
eighteen (18) inches, and a minimum depth of eight (8) inches;
    (iii) A backstop, solid or perforated, with minimum height of 
backstop of six (6) inches above the safety tread surface; and
    (iv) A height of not more than nineteen (19) inches, preferably 
fifteen (15) inches, measured from top of rail to the safety tread 
surface.
    (3) Location. Switching steps must be located on each side near each 
end of a locomotive used in switching service. The bottom step of the 
stairway at these locations may also serve as a switching step if it 
meets all of the requirements of this section.
    (4) Manner of application. (i) Switching steps must be supported by 
a bracket at each end and fastened to the bracket by two bolts or rivets 
of at least one-half (\1/2\) inch diameter or by a weldment of at least 
twice the strength of a bolted attachment.
    (ii) Vertical clearance must be unobstructed, except for minor 
intrusions created by mechanical fasteners or a small triangular gusset 
plate at the platform level walkway, and free for use for at least a 
distance of eighty-four (84) inches over a portion of the switching step 
that is not less than seven (7) inches deep by eighteen (18) inches wide 
on locomotives built prior to April 1, 1977, and of not less than seven 
(7) inches deep by twenty-four (24) inches wide on locomotives built 
after March 31, 1977.
    (5) Material. (i) Steel or other material of equivalent or better 
strength and deflection characteristics, anti-skid, safety design, 
having at least fifty percent (50%) of the tread surface as open space 
must be used.
    (ii) When the step material creates a second level safety tread 
surface, the maximum difference in surface levels may not exceed three-
eighths (\3/8\) of an inch.
    (iii) The safety tread surface must extend to within one-half (\1/
2\) inch of each edge of the step.
    (6) Visibility. The outer edge of each switching step that is not 
illuminated must be painted a contrasting color. On locomotives built 
after March 31, 1977, switching steps shall be illuminated; on multiple-
unit locomotive consists used in switching service, only the front 
switching steps of the leading unit and the rear switching steps of the 
trailing unit must be illuminated.
    (d) End footboards and pilot steps. (1) Except for steam locomotives 
equipped as provided in Sec. 231.16, locomotives used in switching 
service built after March 31, 1975, may not be equipped with end 
footboards or pilot steps.
    (2) Except for steam locomotives equipped as provided in 
Sec. 231.16, locomotives used in switching service built before April 1, 
1975, may not be equipped with end footboards or pilot steps after 
September 30, 1978. Whenever end footboards or pilot steps are removed 
from a locomotive, the uncoupling mechanism and horizontal end handholds 
of the locomotive must be modified to comply with paragraphs (f) and (g) 
of this section.
    (e) Vertical handholds. Each switching step must be provided with 
two (2) vertical handholds or handrails, one on each side of the 
switching step stairway.
    (1) On locomotives built after March 31, 1977, each vertical 
handhold must--
    (i) Be constructed of wrought iron, steel or other material of 
equivalent strength and durability that is at least one (1) inch 
diameter and be securely fastened to the locomotive with one-half (\1/
2\) inch or larger bolts or rivets;
    (ii) Begin not less than six (6) inches nor more than thirty-two 
(32) inches above the safety tread surface of the switching step; on 
units with high snowplows, each must begin not more than thirty-six (36) 
inches above the safety tread surface of the switching step;
    (iii) Extend upward from switching step surface at least forty-eight 
(48) inches;
    (iv) Be painted in a contrasting color to a height of at least 
forty-eight (48) inches above the safety tread surface of the switching 
step; and

[[Page 434]]

    (v) Provide at least two and one-half (2\1/2\) inches of usable hand 
clearance throughout its entire length.
    (2) On locomotives built before April 1, 1977, each vertical 
handhold must--
    (i) Be constructed of wrought iron, steel or other material of 
equivalent strength and durability that is at least seven-eighths (\7/
8\) inch in diameter and be securely fastened with one-half (\1/2\) inch 
or larger bolts or rivets;
    (ii) Begin not less than five (5) inches nor more than thirty-two 
(32) inches above the safety tread surface; on units with high 
snowplows, each must begin not more than thirty-six (36) inches above 
the safety tread surface;
    (iii) Extend upward from safety tread surface of the switching step 
at least forty-eight (48) inches;
    (iv) Be painted in a contrasting color to a height of at least 
forty-eight (48) inches above the safety tread surface of the switching 
step; and
    (v) Provide at least two and one-half (2\1/2\) inches usable hand 
clearance throughout its entire length.
    (f) Uncoupling mechanisms. Each locomotive used in switching service 
must have means for operating the uncoupling mechanism safely from the 
switching step as well as from ground level. No part of the uncoupling 
mechanism may extend into the switching step or stairway opening or end 
platform area when the mechanism is in its normal position or when it is 
operated. (See Plate A)
    (g) Horizontal end handholds. Each locomotive used in switching 
service must have four (4) horizontal end handholds.
    (1) Each horizontal end handhold must--
    (i) Be constructed of wrought iron, steel or other material of 
equivalent strength and durability that is at least five-eighths (\5/8\) 
inch in diameter and be securely fastened to the locomotive with one-
half (\1/2\) inch or larger bolts or rivets;
    (ii) Be located not less than thirty (30) inches nor more than fifty 
(50) inches above the top of rail with its outer end not more than 16 
inches from the side of the locomotive; on units with a high snowplow 
that makes normal end handhold location inaccessible, end handhold shall 
be located on top of plow blade, with the center of the handhold not 
more than fifty-three (53) inches above the top of rail, and be in line 
with the slope of the plow blade;
    (iii) Be at least fourteen (14) inches long; and
    (iv) Provide at least two (2) inches, preferably two and one-half 
(2\1/2\) inches, usable hand clearance throughout its entire length.
    (2) An uncoupling lever may also serve as a horizontal end handhold 
if it complies with the requirements of this paragraph. When an 
uncoupling lever also serves as the horizontal end handhold, it is 
considered to be securely fastened if its securement brackets are 
attached to the locomotive by one-half (\1/2\) inch or larger bolts or 
rivets and its movement between those brackets is limited to the 
rotation necessary for performance of the uncoupling function.

[[Page 435]]

[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC01AP91.007


[[Page 436]]


[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TC01AP91.008


[41 FR 37783, Sept. 8, 1976]

Sec. 231.31  Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section--
    (1) On standard gage (56\1/2\-inch gage) railroads, the maximum 
height of drawbars for freight cars (measured perpendicularly from the 
level of the tops of the rails to the centers of the drawbars) shall be 
34\1/2\ inches, and the minimum height of drawbars for freight cars on 
such standard gage railroads (measured in the same manner) shall be 
31\1/2\ inches.
    (2) On 36-inch gage railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for 
freight cars (measured perpendicularly from the level of the tops of the 
rails to the centers of the drawbars) shall be 26 inches, and the 
minimum height of drawbars for freight cars on such 36-inch gage 
railroads (measured in the same manner) shall be 23 inches.
    (3) On 24-inch gage railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for 
freight cars (measured perpendicularly from the level of the tops of the 
rails to the centers of the drawbars) shall be 17\1/2\ inches, and the 
minimum height of drawbars for freight cars on 24-inch gage railroads 
(measured in the same manner) shall be 14\1/2\ inches.
    (4) On railroads operating on track with a gage other than those 
contained in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section, the 
maximum and minimum height of drawbars for freight cars operating on 
those railroads shall be established upon written approval of FRA.
    (b) This section shall not apply to a railroad all of whose track is 
less than 24 inches in gage.

[66 FR 4192, Jan. 17, 2001]

[[Page 437]]

         Appendix A to Part 231--Schedule of Civil Penalties \1\
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    \1\ A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a 
willful violation. The Administrator reserves the right to assess a 
penalty of up to $22,000 for any violation where circumstances warrant. 
See 49 CFR part 209, appendix A.
    \2\ This schedule uses section numbers from FRA's Safety Appliance 
Defect Code, a restatement of the CFR text in a reorganized format. For 
convenience, and as an exception to FRA's general policy, penalty 
citations will cite the defect code rather than the CFR. FRA reserves 
the right, should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its 
complaint the CFR and/or statutory citation in place of the defect code 
section cited in the penalty demand letter.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                               Willful
 FRA safety appliance defect code section \2\    Violation    violation
------------------------------------------------------------------------
110.A1 Hand Brake or Hand Brake Part Missing..       $5,000       $7,500
110.A2 Hand Brake or Hand Brake Part Broken...        5,000        7,500
110.A3 Hand Brake or Hand Brake Part Loose or         2,500        5,000
 Worn.........................................
110.B1 Hand Brake Inoperative.................        5,000        7,500
110.B2 Hand Brake Inefficient.................        2,500        5,000
110.B3 Hand Brake Improperly Applied..........        2,500        5,000
110.B4 Hand Brake Incorrectly located.........        2,500        5,000
110.B5 Hand Brake Shaft Welded or Wrong               2,500        5,000
 Dimension....................................
110.B6 Hand Brake Shaft Not Retained in               2,500        5,000
 Operating Position...........................
110.B8 Hand Brake or Hand Brake Parts Wrong           2,500        5,000
 Design.......................................
114.B2 Hand Brake Wheel or Lever Has                  2,500        5,000
 Insufficient Clearance Around Rim or Handle..
114.B3 Hand Brake Wheel/Lever Clearance               2,500        5,000
 Insufficient to Vertical Plane Through Inside
 Face of Knuckle..............................
120.A1 Brake Step Missing Except by Design....        5,000        7,500
120.A2 Brake Step or Brace Broken or Decayed..        2,500        5,000
120.A3 Brake Step or Brace Loose..............        2,500        5,000
120.B1 Brake Step or Brace Bent...............        2,500        5,000
120.B2 Brake Step or Wrong Dimensions.........        2,500        5,000
120.C1 Brake Step Improperly Applied..........        2,500        5,000
120.C2 Brake Step Improperly Located..........        2,500        5,000
120.C3 Brake Step With Less Than 4<gr-thn-eq>         2,500        5,000
 Clearance to Vertical Plane Through Inside
 Face of Knuckle..............................
120.C4 Brake Step Obstructed or Otherwise             2,500        5,000
 Unsafe.......................................
124.A1 Running Board Missing or Part Missing          5,000        7,500
 Except By Design.............................
124.A2 Running Board Broken or Decayed........        5,000        7,500
124.A3 Running Board Loose Presents a Tripping        2,500        5,000
 Hazard or Other Unsafe Condition.............
124.A4 Running Board Wrong Material...........        2,500        5,000
124.B1 Running Board Bent to the Extent that          2,500        5,000
 It is Unsafe.................................
124.B2 Running Board Wrong Dimensions.........        2,500        5,000
124.B3 Running Board Wrong Location...........        2,500        5,000
124.C1 Running Board Improperly Applied.......        2,500        5,000
124.C2 Running Board Obstructed...............        2,500        5,000
126.A1 End Platform Missing or Part Except By         5,000        7,500
 Design.......................................
126.A2 End Platform Broken or Decayed.........        5,000        7,500
126.A3 End Platform Loose.....................        2,500        5,000
126.B1 End Platform or Brace Bent.............        2,500        5,000
126.B2 End Platform Wrong Dimensions..........        2,500        5,000
126.C1 End Platform Improperly Applied........        2,500        5,000
126.C2 End Platform With Less Than Required           2,500        5,000
 Clearance to Vertical Plane Through Inside
 Knuckle......................................
126.C3 End Platform Improperly Located........        2,500        5,000
126.C4 End Platform Obstructed................        5,000        7,500
128.A1 Platform or Switching Step Missing.....        5,000        7,500
128.A2 Platform or Switching Step Broken or           5,000        7,500
 Decayed......................................
128.A3 Platform or Switching Step Loose.......        2,500        5,000
128.B1 Platform or Switching Step Bent........        2,500        5,000
128.B2 Platform or Switching Step Does Not            2,500        5,000
 Meet the Required Location or Dimensions.....
128.C1 Platform or Switching Step Improperly          2,500        5,000
 Applied or Repaired..........................
128.C2 Platform or Switching Step Obstructed..        2,500        5,000
128.D1 Switching Step Back Stop or Kick Plate         2,500        5,000
 Missing......................................

[[Page 438]]


128.D2 Switching Step Not Illuminated When            2,500        5,000
 Required.....................................
128.D3 Non-Illuminated Step Not Painted               1,000        2,000
 Contrasting Color............................
130.A1 Sill Step or Additional Tread, Missing.        5,000        7,500
130.A2 Sill Step or Additional Tread, Broken..        5,000        7,500
130.A3 Sill Step or Additional Tread, Loose...        2,500        5,000
130.B1 Sill Step or Additional Tread, Bent....        2,500        5,000
130.B2 Sill Step or Additional Tread, Having          2,500        5,000
 Wrong Dimensions or Improperly Located.......
130.B3 Sill Step Improperly Applied...........        2,500        5,000
132.A1 Side Missing Step......................        5,000        7,500
132.A2 Side Door Step Broken..................        5,000        7,500
132.A3 Side Door Step Loose...................        2,500        5,000
132.B1 Side Door Step Bent....................        2,500        5,000
132.B2 Side Door Step Having Wrong Dimensions.        2,500        5,000
134.A1 Ladder Missing.........................        5,000        7,500
134.A2 Ladder Broken..........................        5,000        7,500
134.A3 Ladder Loose...........................        2,500        5,000
134.B1 Ladder Bent............................        2,500        5,000
134.B2 Ladder Having Wrong Dimensions.........        2,500        5,000
134.C1 Ladder Improperly Applied..............        2,500        5,000
134.C2 Ladder Having Insufficient Clearance or        2,500        5,000
 Improperly Located...........................
134.C3 Ladder Wrong Design....................        2,500        5,000
134.C4 Ladder Wrong Material..................        2,500        5,000
134.D1 End Clearance Insufficient.............        2,500        5,000
136.A1 Ladder Tread or Handholds Missing......        5,000        7,500
136.A2 Ladder Tread or Handhold Broken........        5,000        7,500
136.A3 Ladder Tread or Handhold Loose Except          2,500        5,000
 By Design....................................
136.B1 Ladder Tread or Handhold Bent to The           2,500        5,000
 Extent That It May Be Unsafe.................
136.B2 Ladder Tread or Handhold Wrong                 2,500        5,000
 Dimensions...................................
136.C1 Ladder Tread or Handhold Improperly            2,500        5,000
 Applied......................................
136.C2 Ladder Tread or Handhold Having Wrong          2,500        5,000
 Clearance....................................
136.C3 Ladder or Handhold Improperly Located..        2,500        5,000
136.C4 Ladder Tread or Handhold Obstructed....        2,500        5,000
136.C5 Ladder Tread Without Footguards........        2,500        5,000
138.A1 Hand or Safety Railing Missing.........        5,000        7,500
138.A2 Hand or Safety Railing Broken..........        5,000        7,500
138.A3 Hand or Safety Railing Loose Except by         2,500        5,000
 Design.......................................
138.B1 Hand or Safety Railing Bent............        2,500        5,000
138.B2 Hand or Safety Railing Wrong Dimensions        2,500        5,000
138.C1 Hand or Safety Railing Improperly              2,500        5,000
 Applied......................................
138.C2 Hand or Safety Railing Having Less Than        2,500        5,000
 the Required Clearance.......................
138.C3 Hand or Safety Railing Improperly              2,500        5,000
 Located......................................
140.A1 Uncoupling Lever Missing...............        2,500        5,000
140.A2 Uncoupling Lever Broken or Disconnected        2,500        5,000
140.B1 Uncoupling Lever Bent Will not Safely          2,500        5,000
 and Reasonably Function As Intended..........
140.C1 Uncoupling Lever Bracket Bent Lever            2,500        5,000
 Will Not Function Properly...................
140.C2 Uncoupling Lever Bracket Broken or             2,500        5,000
 Missing......................................
140.D1 Uncoupling Lever Wrong Dimension.......        2,500        5,000
140.D2 Uncoupling Lever With Improper Handle          2,500        5,000
 Clearance....................................
144.A1 Coupler Missing........................        5,000        7,500
144.B1 Coupler Height Incorrect...............        2,500        5,000
144.C1 Coupler Inoperative....................        2,500        5,000
145.A1 Kick Plates Missing....................        2,500        5,000
145.A2 Kick Plates Broken.....................        2,500        5,000
145.B1 Kick Plates Wrong Dimensions...........        2,500        5,000
145.B2 Kick Plates Improper Clearance.........        2,500        5,000
145.B3 Kick Plates Insecure Or Improperly             2,500        5,000
 Applied......................................
146.A Notice or Stencil not Posted on Cabooses          500        1,000
 with Running Boards Removed..................
146.B Safe Means not Provided to Clean or             1,000        2,000
 Maintain Windows of Caboose..................
231.31 Drawbars, standard height..............        2,500        5,000
------------------------------------------------------------------------


[53 FR 52933, Dec. 29, 1988, as amended at 63 FR 11623, Mar. 10, 1998; 
66 FR 4193, Jan. 17, 2001]

[[Page 439]]



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