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[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 49, Volume 4]
[Revised as of October 1, 2003]
[CITE: 49CFR219]

[Page 207-247]
 

TITLE 49--TRANSPORTATION
CHAPTER II--FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
PART 219--CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE


                           Subpart A--General

Sec.
219.1 Purpose and scope.
219.3 Application.
219.5 Definitions.
219.7 Waivers.
219.9 Responsibility for compliance.
219.11 General conditions for chemical tests.
219.13 Preemptive effect.
219.15 [Reserved]
219.17 Construction.
219.19 [Reserved]
219.21 Information collection.
219.23 Railroad policies.

                         Subpart B--Prohibitions

219.101 Alcohol and drug use prohibited.
219.102 Prohibition on abuse of controlled substances.
219.103 Prescribed and over-the-counter drugs.
219.104 Responsive action.
219.105 Railroad's duty to prevent violations.
219.107 Consequences of unlawful refusal.

             Subpart C--Post-Accident Toxicological Testing

219.201 Events for which testing is required.
219.203 Responsibilities of railroads and employees.
219.205 Specimen collection and handling.
219.206 FRA access to breath test results.
219.207 Fatality.
219.209 Reports of tests and refusals.
219.211 Analysis and follow-up.
219.213 Unlawful refusals; consequences.

[[Page 208]]

                      Subpart D--Testing for Cause

219.300 Mandatory reasonable suspicion testing.
219.301 Testing for reasonable cause.
219.302 Prompt specimen collection; time limitation.

             Subpart E--Identification of Troubled Employees

219.401 Requirement for policies.
219.403 Voluntary referral policy.
219.405 Co-worker report policy.
219.407 Alternate policies.

                     Subpart F--Pre-Employment Tests

219.501 Pre-employment drug testing.
219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing.
219.503 Notification; records.
219.505 Refusals.

           Subpart G--Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs

219.601 Railroad random drug testing programs.
219.602 FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing rate.
219.603 Participation in drug testing.
219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures.
219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs.
219.608 FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing 
          rate.
219.609 Participation in alcohol testing.
219.611 Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; 
          procedures.

             Subpart H--Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures

219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

                        Subpart I--Annual Report

219.801 Reporting alcohol misuse prevention program results in a 
          management information system.
219.803 Reporting drug misuse prevention program results in a management 
          information system.

                  Subpart J--Recordkeeping Requirements

219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records.
219.903 Retention of drug testing records.
219.905 Access to facilities and records.

Appendix A to Part 219--Schedule of Civil Penalties
Appendix B to Part 219--Designation of Laboratory for Post-Accident 
          Toxicological Testing
Appendix C to Part 219--Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107, 20140, 21301, 21304, 21311; 28 
U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.49(m).

    Source: 66 FR 41973, Aug. 9, 2001, unless otherwise noted.

                           Subpart A--General

Sec. 219.1  Purpose and scope.

    (a) The purpose of this part is to prevent accidents and casualties 
in railroad operations that result from impairment of employees by 
alcohol or drugs.
    (b) This part prescribes minimum Federal safety standards for 
control of alcohol and drug use. This part does not restrict a railroad 
from adopting and enforcing additional or more stringent requirements 
not inconsistent with this part.

Sec. 219.3  Application.

    (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, 
this part applies to--
    (1) Railroads that operate rolling equipment on standard gauge track 
which is part of the general railroad system of transportation; and
    (2) Railroads that provide commuter or other short-haul rail 
passenger service in a metropolitan or suburban area (as described by 49 
U.S.C. 20102).
    (b)(1) This part does not apply to a railroad that operates only on 
track inside an installation which is not part of the general railroad 
system of transportation.
    (2) Subparts D, E, F and G of this part do not apply to a railroad 
that employs not more than 15 employees covered by the hours of service 
laws at 49 U.S.C. 21103, 21104, or 21105, and that does not operate on 
tracks of another railroad (or otherwise engage in joint operations with 
another railroad) except as necessary for purposes of interchange.
    (3) Subpart I of this part does not apply to a railroad that has 
fewer than 400,000 total manhours.
    (c) Subparts E, F and G of this part do not apply to operations of a 
foreign railroad conducted by covered service employees whose primary 
place of service (``home terminal'') for rail transportation services is 
located outside the United States. Such operations and

[[Page 209]]

employees are subject to Subparts A, B, C, and D of this part when 
operating in United States territory.

Sec. 219.5  Definitions.

    As used in this part--
    Accident or incident reportable under part 225 does not include a 
case that is classified as ``covered data'' under Sec. 225.5 of this 
chapter (i.e., employee injury/illness cases reportable exclusively 
because a physician or other licensed health care professional either 
made a one-time topical application of a prescription-strength 
medication to the employee's injury or made a written recommendation 
that the employee: Take one or more days away from work when the 
employee instead reports to work (or would have reported had he or she 
been scheduled) and takes no days away from work in connection with the 
injury or illness; work restricted duty for one or more days when the 
employee instead works unrestricted (or would have worked unrestricted 
had he or she been scheduled) and takes no other days of restricted work 
activity in connection with the injury or illness; or take over-the-
counter medication at a dosage equal to or greater than the minimum 
prescription strength, whether or not the employee actually takes the 
medication).
    Class I, Class II, and Class III have the meaning assigned by 
regulations of the Surface Transportation Board (49 CFR part 1201; 
General Instructions 1-1).
    Controlled substance has the meaning assigned by 21 U.S.C. 802, and 
includes all substances listed on Schedules I through V as they may be 
revised from time to time (21 CFR Parts 1301-1316).
    Covered employee means a person who has been assigned to perform 
service subject to the hours of service laws (49 U.S.C. ch. 211) during 
a duty tour, whether or not the person has performed or is currently 
performing such service, and any person who performs such service. (An 
employee is not ``covered'' within the meaning of this part exclusively 
by reason of being an employee for purposes of 49 U.S.C. 21106.) For the 
purposes of pre-employment testing only, the term ``covered employee'' 
includes a person applying to perform covered service.
    Co-worker means another employee of the railroad, including a 
working supervisor directly associated with a yard or train crew, such 
as a conductor or yard foreman, but not including any other railroad 
supervisor, special agent, or officer.
    DOT Agency means an agency (or ``operating administration'') of the 
United States Department of Transportation administering regulations 
requiring alcohol or controlled substance testing (14 CFR parts 61, 63, 
65, 121 and 135; 49 CFR parts 199, 219, 382 and 655) in accordance with 
Part 40 of this title.
    Drug means any substance (other than alcohol) that has known mind- 
or function-altering effects on a human subject, specifically including 
any psychoactive substance and including, but not limited to, controlled 
substances.
    FRA means the Federal Railroad Administration, United States 
Department of Transportation.
    FRA representative means the Associate Administrator for Safety of 
FRA, the Associate Administrator's delegate (including a qualified State 
inspector acting under Part 212 of this chapter), the Chief Counsel of 
FRA, or the Chief Counsel's delegate.
    Hazardous material means a commodity designated as a hazardous 
material by Part 172 of this title.
    Impact accident means a train accident (i.e., a rail equipment 
accident involving damage in excess of the current reporting threshold 
(see Sec. 225.19(e) of this chapter)) consisting of a head-on collision, 
a rear-end collision, a side collision (including a collision at a 
railroad crossing at grade), a switching collision, or impact with a 
deliberately-placed obstruction such as a bumping post. The following 
are not impact accidents:
    (1) An accident in which the derailment of equipment causes an 
impact with other rail equipment;
    (2) Impact of rail equipment with obstructions such as fallen trees, 
rock or snow slides, livestock, etc.; and
    (3) Raking collisions caused by derailment of rolling stock or 
operation of equipment in violation of clearance limitations.

[[Page 210]]

    Independent with respect to a medical facility, means not under the 
ownership or control of the railroad and not operated or staffed by a 
salaried officer or employee of the railroad. The fact that the railroad 
pays for services rendered by a medical facility or laboratory, selects 
that entity for performing tests under this part, or has a standing 
contractual relationship with that entity to perform tests under this 
part or perform other medical examinations or tests of railroad 
employees does not, by itself, remove the facility from this definition.
    Medical facility means a hospital, clinic, physician's office, or 
laboratory where toxicological specimens can be collected according to 
recognized professional standards.
    Medical practitioner means a physician or dentist licensed or 
otherwise authorized to practice by the state.
    NTSB means the National Transportation Safety Board.
    Passenger train means a train transporting persons (other than 
employees, contractors, or persons riding equipment to observe or 
monitor railroad operations) in intercity passenger service, commuter or 
other short-haul service, or for excursion or recreational purposes.
    Positive rate means the number of positive results for random drug 
tests conducted under this part plus the number of refusals of random 
tests required by this part, divided by the total number of random drug 
tests conducted under this part plus the number of refusals of random 
tests required by this part.
    Possess means to have on one's person or in one's personal effects 
or under one's control. However, the concept of possession as used in 
this part does not include control by virtue of presence in the 
employee's personal residence or other similar location off of railroad 
property.
    Railroad means any form of nonhighway ground transportation that 
runs on rails or electromagnetic guideways, and any person providing 
such transportation, including--
    (1) Commuter or other short-haul railroad passenger service in a 
metropolitan or suburban area and commuter railroad service that was 
operated by the Consolidated Rail Corporation on January 1, 1979; and
    (2) High speed ground transportation systems that connect 
metropolitan areas, without regard to whether those systems use new 
technologies not associated with traditional railroads; but does not 
include rapid transit operations in an urban area that are not connected 
to the general railroad system of transportation.
    Railroad property damage or damage to railroad property refers to 
damage to railroad property, including railroad on-track equipment, 
signals, track, track structures (including bridges and tunnels), or 
roadbed, including labor costs and all other costs for repair or 
replacement in kind. Estimated cost for replacement of railroad property 
must be calculated as described in the FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/
Incident Reports. (See Sec. 225.21 of this chapter.) However, 
replacement of passenger equipment is calculated based on the cost of 
acquiring a new unit for comparable service.
    Reportable injury means an injury reportable under part 225 of this 
chapter except for an injury that is classified as ``covered data'' 
under Sec. 225.5 of this chapter (i.e., employee injury/illness cases 
reportable exclusively because a physician or other licensed health care 
professional either made a one-time topical application of a 
prescription-strength medication to the employee's injury or made a 
written recommendation that the employee: Take one or more days away 
from work when the employee instead reports to work (or would have 
reported had he or she been scheduled) and takes no days away from work 
in connection with the injury or illness; work restricted duty for one 
or more days when the employee instead works unrestricted (or would have 
worked unrestricted had he or she been scheduled) and takes no other 
days of restricted work activity in connection with the injury or 
illness; or take over-the-counter medication at a dosage equal to or 
greater than the minimum prescription strength, whether or not the 
employee actually takes the medication.
    Reporting threshold means the amount specified in Sec. 225.19(e) of 
this chapter, as

[[Page 211]]

adjusted from time to time in accordance with Appendix B to Part 225 of 
this chapter.
    Supervisory employee means an officer, special agent, or other 
employee of the railroad who is not a co-worker and who is responsible 
for supervising or monitoring the conduct or performance of one or more 
employees.
    Train, except as context requires, means a locomotive, or more than 
one locomotive coupled, with or without cars. (A locomotive is a self-
propelled unit of equipment which can be used in train service.)
    Train accident means a passenger, freight, or work train accident 
described in Sec. 225.19(c) of this chapter (a ``rail equipment 
accident'' involving damage in excess of the current reporting 
threshold), including an accident involving a switching movement.
    Train incident means an event involving the movement of railroad on-
track equipment that results in a casualty but in which railroad 
property damage does not exceed the reporting threshold.
    Violation rate means the number of covered employees (as reported 
under Sec. 219.801) found during random tests given under this part to 
have an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater, plus the number of 
employees who refuse a random test required by this part, divided by the 
total reported number of employees in the industry given random alcohol 
tests under this part plus the total reported number of employees in the 
industry who refuse a random test required by this part.

[66 FR 41973, Aug. 9, 2001, as amended at 68 FR 10135, Mar. 3, 2003]

Sec. 219.7  Waivers.

    (a) A person subject to a requirement of this part may petition the 
FRA for a waiver of compliance with such requirement.
    (b) Each petition for waiver under this section must be filed in a 
manner and contain the information required by Part 211 of this chapter. 
A petition for waiver of the Part 40 prohibition against stand down of 
an employee before the Medical Review Officer has completed the 
verification must also comply with Sec. 40.21 of this title.
    (c) If the FRA Administrator finds that waiver of compliance is in 
the public interest and is consistent with railroad safety, the 
Administrator may grant the waiver subject to any necessary conditions.

Sec. 219.9  Responsibility for compliance.

    (a) Any person (an entity of any type covered under 1 U.S.C. 1, 
including but not limited to the following: A railroad; a manager, 
supervisor, official, or other employee or agent of a railroad; any 
owner, manufacturer, lessor, or lessee of railroad equipment, track, or 
facilities; any independent contractor providing goods or services to a 
railroad; and any employee of such owner, manufacturer, lessor, lessee, 
or independent contractor) who violates any requirement of this part or 
causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil 
penalty of at least $500 and not more than $11,000 per violation, except 
that: Penalties may be assessed against individuals only for willful 
violations; where a grossly negligent violation or a pattern of repeated 
violations has created an imminent hazard of death or injury, or has 
caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $22,000 per violation 
may be assessed; and the standard of liability for a railroad will vary 
depending upon the requirement involved. See, e.g., Sec. 219.105, which 
must be construed to qualify the responsibility of a railroad for the 
unauthorized conduct of an employee that violates Sec. 219.101 or 
Sec. 219.102 (while imposing a duty of due diligence to prevent such 
conduct). Each day a violation continues constitutes a separate offense. 
See Appendix A to this part for a statement of agency civil penalty 
policy.
    (b)(1) In the case of joint operations, primary responsibility for 
compliance with this part with respect to determination of events 
qualifying for breath or body fluid testing under Subparts C and D of 
this part rests with the host railroad, and all affected employees must 
be responsive to direction from the host railroad consistent with this 
part. However, nothing in this paragraph (b)(1) restricts the ability of 
the railroads to provide for an appropriate assignment of responsibility 
for compliance with this part as among

[[Page 212]]

those railroads through a joint operating agreement or other binding 
contract. FRA reserves the right to bring an enforcement action for 
noncompliance with applicable portions of this part against the host 
railroad, the employing railroad, or both.
    (2) Where an employee of one railroad is required to participate in 
breath or body fluid testing under Subpart C or D of this part and is 
subsequently subject to adverse action alleged to have arisen out of the 
required test (or alleged refusal thereof), necessary witnesses and 
documents available to the other railroad must be made available to the 
employee on a reasonable basis.
    (c) Any independent contractor or other entity that performs covered 
service for a railroad has the same responsibilities as a railroad under 
this part, with respect to its employees who perform covered service. 
The entity's responsibility for compliance with this part may be 
fulfilled either directly by that entity or by the railroad's treating 
the entity's employees who perform covered service as if they were its 
own employees for purposes of this part. The responsibility for 
compliance must be clearly spelled out in the contract between the 
railroad and the other entity or in another document. In the absence of 
such a clear delineation of responsibility, FRA will hold the railroad 
and the other entity jointly and severally liable for compliance.

Sec. 219.11  General conditions for chemical tests.

    (a) Any employee who performs covered service for a railroad is 
deemed to have consented to testing as required in subparts B, C, D, and 
G of this part; and consent is implied by performance of such service.
    (b)(1) Each such employee must participate in such testing, as 
required under the conditions set forth in this part by a representative 
of the railroad.
    (2) In any case where an employee has sustained a personal injury 
and is subject to alcohol or drug testing under this part, necessary 
medical treatment must be accorded priority over provision of the breath 
or body fluid specimen(s).
    (3) Failure to remain available following an accident or casualty as 
required by company rules (i.e., being absent without leave) is 
considered a refusal to participate in testing, without regard to any 
subsequent provision of specimens.
    (c) A covered employee who is required to be tested under subpart C 
or D of this part and who is taken to a medical facility for observation 
or treatment after an accident or incident is deemed to have consented 
to the release to FRA of the following:
    (1) The remaining portion of any body fluid specimen taken by the 
treating facility within 12 hours of the accident or incident that is 
not required for medical purposes, together with any normal medical 
facility record(s) pertaining to the taking of such specimen;
    (2) The results of any laboratory tests for alcohol or any drug 
conducted by or for the treating facility on such specimen;
    (3) The identity, dosage, and time of administration of any drugs 
administered by the treating facility prior to the time specimens were 
taken by the treating facility or prior to the time specimens were taken 
in compliance with this part; and
    (4) The results of any breath tests for alcohol conducted by or for 
the treating facility.
    (d) An employee required to participate in body fluid testing under 
subpart C of this part (post-accident toxicological testing) or testing 
subject to subpart H of this part shall, if requested by the 
representative of the railroad or the medical facility (including, under 
subpart H of this part, a non-medical contract collector), evidence 
consent to taking of specimens, their release for toxicological analysis 
under pertinent provisions of this part, and release of the test results 
to the railroad's Medical Review Officer by promptly executing a consent 
form, if required by the medical facility. The employee is not required 
to execute any document or clause waiving rights that the employee would 
otherwise have against the employer, and any such waiver is void. The 
employee may not be required to waive liability with respect to 
negligence on the part of

[[Page 213]]

any person participating in the collection, handling or analysis of the 
specimen or to indemnify any person for the negligence of others. Any 
consent provided consistent with this section may be construed to extend 
only to those actions specified in this section.
    (e) Nothing in this part may be construed to authorize the use of 
physical coercion or any other deprivation of liberty in order to compel 
breath or body fluid testing.
    (f) Any railroad employee who performs service for a railroad is 
deemed to have consented to removal of body fluid and/or tissue 
specimens necessary for toxicological analysis from the remains of such 
employee, if such employee dies within 12 hours of an accident or 
incident described in subpart C of this part as a result of such event. 
This consent is specifically required of employees not in covered 
service, as well as employees in covered service.
    (g) Each supervisor responsible for covered employees (except a 
working supervisor within the definition of co-worker under this part) 
must be trained in the signs and symptoms of alcohol and drug influence, 
intoxication and misuse consistent with a program of instruction to be 
made available for inspection upon demand by FRA. Such a program shall, 
at a minimum, provide information concerning the acute behavioral and 
apparent physiological effects of alcohol and the major drug groups on 
the controlled substances list. The program must also provide training 
on the qualifying criteria for post-accident testing contained in 
subpart C of this part, and the role of the supervisor in post-accident 
collections described in subpart C and Appendix C of this part. The 
duration of such training may not be less than 3 hours.
    (h) Nothing in this subpart restricts any discretion available to 
the railroad to request or require that an employee cooperate in 
additional body fluid testing. However, no such testing may be performed 
on urine or blood specimens provided under this part. For purposes of 
this paragraph (h), all urine from a void constitutes a single specimen.

Sec. 219.13  Preemptive effect.

    (a) Under section 20106 of title 49, United States Code, issuance of 
the regulations in this part preempts any State law, rule, regulation, 
order or standard covering the same subject matter, except a provision 
directed at a local hazard that is consistent with this part and that 
does not impose an undue burden on interstate commerce.
    (b) FRA does not intend by issuance of the regulations in this part 
to preempt provisions of State criminal law that impose sanctions for 
reckless conduct that leads to actual loss of life, injury or damage to 
property, whether such provisions apply specifically to railroad 
employees or generally to the public at large.

Sec. 219.15  [Reserved]

Sec. 219.17  Construction.

    Nothing in this part--
    (a) Restricts the power of FRA to conduct investigations under 
sections 20107, 20108, 20111, and 20112 of title 49, United States Code; 
or
    (b) Creates a private right of action on the part of any person for 
enforcement of the provisions of this part or for damages resulting from 
noncompliance with this part.

Sec. 219.19  [Reserved]

Sec. 219.21  Information collection.

    (a) The information collection requirements of this part have been 
reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget pursuant to the 
Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.) and have been 
assigned OMB control number 2130-0526.
    (b) The information collection requirements are found in the 
following sections: 219.7, 219.23, 219.104, 219.201, 219.203, 219.205, 
219.207, 219.209, 219.211, 219.213, 219.303, 219.401, 219.403, 219.405, 
219.407, 219.501, 219.502, 219.503, 219.601, 219.605, 219.701, 219.801, 
219.803, 219.901, and 219.903.

Sec. 219.23  Railroad policies.

    (a) Whenever a breath or body fluid test is required of an employee 
under this part, the railroad must provide clear and unequivocal written 
notice to

[[Page 214]]

the employee that the test is being required under FRA regulations. Use 
of the mandated DOT form for drug or alcohol testing satisfies the 
requirements of this paragraph (a).
    (b) Whenever a breath or body fluid test is required of an employee 
under this part, the railroad must provide clear, unequivocal written 
notice of the basis or bases upon which the test is required (e.g., 
reasonable suspicion, violation of a specified operating/safety rule 
enumerated in subpart D of this part, random selection, follow-up, 
etc.). Completion of the DOT alcohol or drug testing form indicating the 
basis of the test (prior to providing a copy to the employee) satisfies 
the requirement of this paragraph (b). Use of the DOT form for non-
Federal tests is prohibited.
    (c) Use of approved forms for mandatory post-accident toxicological 
testing under subpart C of this part provides the notifications required 
under this section with respect to such tests. Use of those forms for 
any other test is prohibited.
    (d) Each railroad must provide educational materials that explain 
the requirements of this part, and the railroad's policies and 
procedures with respect to meeting those requirements.
    (1) The railroad must ensure that a copy of these materials is 
distributed to each covered employee prior to the start of alcohol 
testing under the railroad's alcohol misuse prevention program and to 
each person subsequently hired for or transferred to a covered position.
    (2) Each railroad must provide written notice to representatives of 
employee organizations of the availability of this information.
    (e) Required content. The materials to be made available to 
employees must include detailed discussion of at least the following:
    (1) The identity of the person designated by the railroad to answer 
employee questions about the materials.
    (2) The classes or crafts of employees who are subject to the 
provisions of this part.
    (3) Sufficient information about the safety-sensitive functions 
performed by those employees to make clear that the period of the work 
day the covered employee is required to be in compliance with this part 
is that period when the employee is on duty and is required to perform 
or is available to perform covered service.
    (4) Specific information concerning employee conduct that is 
prohibited under subpart B of this part.
    (5) In the case of a railroad utilizing the accident/incident and 
rule violation reasonable cause testing authority provided by this part, 
prior notice (which may be combined with the notice required by 
Secs. 219.601(d)(1) and 219.607(d)(1)), to covered employees of the 
circumstances under which they will be subject to testing.
    (6) The circumstances under which a covered employee will be tested 
under this part.
    (7) The procedures that will be used to test for the presence of 
alcohol and controlled substances, protect the employee and the 
integrity of the testing processes, safeguard the validity of the test 
results, and ensure that those results are attributed to the correct 
employee.
    (8) The requirement that a covered employee submit to alcohol and 
drug tests administered in accordance with this part.
    (9) An explanation of what constitutes a refusal to submit to an 
alcohol or drug test and the attendant consequences.
    (10) The consequences for covered employees found to have violated 
Subpart B of this part, including the requirement that the employee be 
removed immediately from covered service, and the procedures under 
Sec. 219.104.
    (11) The consequences for covered employees found to have an alcohol 
concentration of .02 or greater but less than .04.
    (12) Information concerning the effects of alcohol misuse on an 
individual's health, work, and personal life; signs and symptoms of an 
alcohol problem (the employee's or a coworker's); and available methods 
of evaluating and resolving problems associated with the misuse of 
alcohol, including utilization of the procedures set forth in subpart E 
of this part and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of 
substance abuse professionals and counseling and treatment programs.

[[Page 215]]

    (f) Optional provisions. The materials supplied to employees may 
also include information on additional railroad policies with respect to 
the use or possession of alcohol and drugs, including any consequences 
for an employee found to have a specific alcohol concentration, that are 
based on the railroad's authority independent of this part. Any such 
additional policies or consequences must be clearly and obviously 
described as being based on independent authority.

                         Subpart B--Prohibitions

Sec. 219.101  Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    (a) Prohibitions. Except as provided in Sec. 219.103--
    (1) No employee may use or possess alcohol or any controlled 
substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service.
    (2) No employee may report for covered service, or go or remain on 
duty in covered service while--
    (i) Under the influence of or impaired by alcohol;
    (ii) Having .04 or more alcohol concentration in the breath or 
blood; or
    (iii) Under the influence of or impaired by any controlled 
substance.
    (3) No employee may use alcohol for whichever is the lesser of the 
following periods:
    (i) Within four hours of reporting for covered service; or
    (ii) After receiving notice to report for covered service.
    (4) No employee tested under the provisions of this part whose test 
result indicates an alcohol concentration of .02 or greater but less 
than .04 may perform or continue to perform covered service functions 
for a railroad, nor may a railroad permit the employee to perform or 
continue to perform covered service, until the start of the employee's 
next regularly scheduled duty period, but not less than eight hours 
following administration of the test.
    (5) If an employee tested under the provisions of this part has a 
test result indicating an alcohol concentration below 0.02, the test 
must be considered negative and is not evidence of alcohol misuse. A 
railroad may not use a federal test result below 0.02 either as evidence 
in a company proceeding or as a basis for subsequent testing under 
company authority. A railroad may take further action to compel 
cooperation in other breath or body fluid testing only if it has an 
independent basis for doing so.
    (b) Controlled substance. ``Controlled substance'' is defined by 
Sec. 219.5. Controlled substances are grouped as follows: marijuana, 
narcotics (such as heroin and codeine), stimulants (such as cocaine and 
amphetamines), depressants (such as barbiturates and minor 
tranquilizers), and hallucinogens (such as the drugs known as PCP and 
LSD). Controlled substances include illicit drugs (Schedule I), drugs 
that are required to be distributed only by a medical practitioner's 
prescription or other authorization (Schedules II through IV, and some 
drugs on Schedule V), and certain preparations for which distribution is 
through documented over the counter sales (Schedule V only).
    (c) Railroad rules. Nothing in this section restricts a railroad 
from imposing an absolute prohibition on the presence of alcohol or any 
drug in the body fluids of persons in its employ, whether in furtherance 
of the purpose of this part or for other purposes.
    (d) Construction. This section may not be construed to prohibit the 
presence of an unopened container of an alcoholic beverage in a private 
motor vehicle that is not subject to use in the business of the 
railroad; nor may it be construed to restrict a railroad from 
prohibiting such presence under its own rules.

Sec. 219.102  Prohibition on abuse of controlled substances.

    No employee who performs covered service may use a controlled 
substance at any time, whether on duty or off duty, except as permitted 
by Sec. 219.103.

Sec. 219.103  Prescribed and over-the-counter drugs.

    (a) This subpart does not prohibit the use of a controlled substance 
(on Schedules II through V of the controlled substance list) prescribed 
or authorized by a medical practitioner, or possession incident to such 
use, if--

[[Page 216]]

    (1) The treating medical practitioner or a physician designated by 
the railroad has made a good faith judgment, with notice of the 
employee's assigned duties and on the basis of the available medical 
history, that use of the substance by the employee at the prescribed or 
authorized dosage level is consistent with the safe performance of the 
employee's duties;
    (2) The substance is used at the dosage prescribed or authorized; 
and
    (3) In the event the employee is being treated by more than one 
medical practitioner, at least one treating medical practitioner has 
been informed of all medications authorized or prescribed and has 
determined that use of the medications is consistent with the safe 
performance of the employee's duties (and the employee has observed any 
restrictions imposed with respect to use of the medications in 
combination).
    (b) This subpart does not restrict any discretion available to the 
railroad to require that employees notify the railroad of therapeutic 
drug use or obtain prior approval for such use.

Sec. 219.104  Responsive action.

    (a) Removal from covered service. (1) If the railroad determines 
that an employee has violated Sec. 219.101 or Sec. 219.102, or the 
alcohol or controlled substances misuse rule of another DOT agency, the 
railroad must immediately remove the employee from covered service and 
the procedures described in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section 
apply.
    (2) If an employee refuses to provide breath or a body fluid 
specimen or specimens when required to by the railroad under a mandatory 
provision of this part, the railroad must immediately remove the 
employee from covered service, and the procedures described in 
paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section apply.
    (3)(i) This section does not apply to actions based on breath or 
body fluid tests for alcohol or drugs that are conducted exclusively 
under authority other than that provided in this part (e.g., testing 
under a company medical policy, for-cause testing policy wholly 
independent of subpart D of this part, or testing under a labor 
agreement).
    (ii) This section and the information requirements listed in 
Sec. 219.23 do not apply to applicants who refuse to submit to a pre-
employment test or who have a pre-employment test with a result 
indicating the misuse of alcohol or controlled substances.
    (b) Notice. Prior to or upon withdrawing the employee from covered 
service under this section, the railroad must provide notice to the 
employee of the reason for this action.
    (c) Hearing procedures. (1) If the employee denies that the test 
result is valid evidence of alcohol or drug use prohibited by this 
subpart, the employee may demand and must be provided an opportunity for 
a prompt post-suspension hearing before a presiding officer other than 
the charging official. This hearing may be consolidated with any 
disciplinary hearing arising from the same accident or incident (or 
conduct directly related thereto), but the presiding officer must make 
separate findings as to compliance with Secs. 219.101 and 219.102.
    (2) The hearing must be convened within the period specified in the 
applicable collective bargaining agreement. In the absence of an 
agreement provision, the employee may demand that the hearing be 
convened within 10 calendar days of the suspension or, in the case of an 
employee who is unavailable due to injury, illness, or other sufficient 
cause, within 10 days of the date the employee becomes available for 
hearing.
    (3) A post-suspension proceeding conforming to the requirements of 
an applicable collective bargaining agreement, together with the 
provisions for adjustment of disputes under sec. 3 of the Railway Labor 
Act (49 U.S.C. 153), satisfies the procedural requirements of this 
paragraph (c).
    (4) Nothing in this part may be deemed to abridge any additional 
procedural rights or remedies not inconsistent with this part that are 
available to the employee under a collective bargaining agreement, the 
Railway Labor Act, or (with respect to employment at will) at common law 
with respect to the removal or other adverse action taken as a 
consequence of a positive test result in a test authorized or required 
by this part.
    (5) Nothing in this part restricts the discretion of the railroad to 
treat an

[[Page 217]]

employee's denial of prohibited alcohol or drug use as a waiver of any 
privilege the employee would otherwise enjoy to have such prohibited 
alcohol or drug use treated as a non-disciplinary matter or to have 
discipline held in abeyance.
    (d) The railroad must comply with the return-to-service and follow-
up testing requirements, and the Substance Abuse Professional conflict-
of-interest prohibitions, contained in Secs. 40.305, 40.307, and 40.299 
of this title, respectively.

Sec. 219.105  Railroad's duty to prevent violations.

    (a) A railroad may not, with actual knowledge, permit an employee to 
go or remain on duty in covered service in violation of the prohibitions 
of Sec. 219.101 or Sec. 219.102. As used in this section, the knowledge 
imputed to the railroad must be limited to that of a railroad management 
employee (such as a supervisor deemed an ``officer,'' whether or not 
such person is a corporate officer) or a supervisory employee in the 
offending employee's chain of command.
    (b) A railroad must exercise due diligence to assure compliance with 
Secs. 219.101 and 219.102 by each covered employee.

Sec. 219.107  Consequences of unlawful refusal.

    (a) An employee who refuses to provide breath or a body fluid 
specimen or specimens when required to by the railroad under a mandatory 
provision of this part must be deemed disqualified for a period of nine 
(9) months.
    (b) Prior to or upon withdrawing the employee from covered service 
under this section, the railroad must provide notice of the reason for 
this action, and the procedures described in Sec. 219.104(c) apply.
    (c) The disqualification required by this section applies with 
respect to employment in covered service by any railroad with notice of 
such disqualification.
    (d) The requirement of disqualification for nine (9) months does not 
limit any discretion on the part of the railroad to impose additional 
sanctions for the same or related conduct.
    (e) Upon the expiration of the 9-month period described in this 
section, a railroad may permit the employee to return to covered service 
only under the same conditions specified in Sec. 219.104(d), and the 
employee must be subject to follow-up tests, as provided by that 
section.

             Subpart C--Post-Accident Toxicological Testing

Sec. 219.201  Events for which testing is required.

    (a) List of events. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this 
section, post-accident toxicological tests must be conducted after any 
event that involves one or more of the circumstances described in 
paragraphs (a)(1) through (4) of this section:
    (1) Major train accident. Any train accident (i.e., a rail equipment 
accident involving damage in excess of the current reporting threshold) 
that involves one or more of the following:
    (i) A fatality;
    (ii) A release of hazardous material lading from railroad equipment 
accompanied by--
    (A) An evacuation; or
    (B) A reportable injury resulting from the hazardous material 
release (e.g., from fire, explosion, inhalation, or skin contact with 
the material); or
    (iii) Damage to railroad property of $1,000,000 or more.
    (2) Impact accident. An impact accident (i.e., a rail equipment 
accident defined as an ``impact accident'' in Sec. 219.5) that involves 
damage in excess of the current reporting threshold, resulting in--
    (i) A reportable injury; or
    (ii) Damage to railroad property of $150,000 or more.
    (3) Fatal train incident. Any train incident that involves a 
fatality to any on-duty railroad employee.
    (4) Passenger train accident. Reportable injury to any person in a 
train accident (i.e., a rail equipment accident involving damage in 
excess of the current reporting threshold) involving a passenger train.
    (b) Exceptions. No test may be required in the case of a collision 
between railroad rolling stock and a

[[Page 218]]

motor vehicle or other highway conveyance at a rail/highway grade 
crossing. No test may be required in the case of an accident/incident 
the cause and severity of which are wholly attributable to a natural 
cause (e.g., flood, tornado, or other natural disaster) or to vandalism 
or trespasser(s), as determined on the basis of objective and documented 
facts by the railroad representative responding to the scene.
    (c) Good faith determinations. (1)(i) The railroad representative 
responding to the scene of the accident/incident must determine whether 
the accident/incident falls within the requirements of paragraph (a) of 
this section or is within the exception described in paragraph (b) of 
this section. It is the duty of the railroad representative to make 
reasonable inquiry into the facts as necessary to make such 
determinations. In making such inquiry, the railroad representative must 
consider the need to obtain specimens as soon as practical in order to 
determine the presence or absence of impairing substances reasonably 
contemporaneous with the accident/incident. The railroad representative 
satisfies the requirement of this section if, after making reasonable 
inquiry, the representative exercises good faith judgement in making the 
required determinations.
    (ii) The railroad representative making the determinations required 
by this section may not be a person directly involved in the accident/
incident. This section does not prohibit consultation between the 
responding railroad representative and higher level railroad officials; 
however, the responding railroad representative must make the factual 
determinations required by this section.
    (iii) Upon specific request made to the railroad by the Associate 
Administrator for Safety, FRA (or the Associate Administrator's 
delegate), the railroad must provide a report describing any decision by 
a person other than the responding railroad representative with respect 
to whether an accident/incident qualifies for testing. This report must 
be affirmed by the decision maker and must be provided to FRA within 72 
hours of the request. The report must include the facts reported by the 
responding railroad representative, the basis upon which the testing 
decision was made, and the person making the decision.
    (iv) Any estimates of railroad property damage made by persons not 
at the scene must be based on descriptions of specific physical damage 
provided by the on-scene railroad representative.
    (v) In the case of an accident involving passenger equipment, a host 
railroad may rely upon the damage estimates provided by the passenger 
railroad (whether present on scene or not) in making the decision 
whether testing is required, subject to the same requirement that 
visible physical damage be specifically described.
    (2) A railroad must not require an employee to provide blood or 
urine specimens under the authority or procedures of this subject unless 
the railroad has made the determinations required by this section, based 
upon reasonable inquiry and good faith judgment. A railroad does not act 
in excess of its authority under this subpart if its representative has 
made such reasonable inquiry and exercised such good faith judgment, but 
it is later determined, after investigation, that one or more of the 
conditions thought to have required testing were not, in fact, present. 
However, this section does not excuse the railroad for any error arising 
from a mistake of law (e.g., application of testing criteria other than 
those contained in this part).
    (3) A railroad is not in violation of this subpart if its 
representative has made such reasonable inquiry and exercised such good 
faith judgment but nevertheless errs in determining that post-accident 
testing is not required.
    (4) An accident/incident with respect to which the railroad has made 
reasonable inquiry and exercised good faith judgment in determining the 
facts necessary to apply the criteria contained in paragraph (a) of this 
section is deemed a qualifying event for purposes of specimen analysis, 
reporting, and other purposes.
    (5) In the event specimens are collected following an event 
determined by FRA not to be a qualifying event within the meaning of 
this section, FRA directs its designated laboratory

[[Page 219]]

to destroy any specimen material submitted and to refrain from 
disclosing to any person the results of any analysis conducted.

Sec. 219.203  Responsibilities of railroads and employees.

    (a) Employees tested. (1)(i) Following each accident and incident 
described in Sec. 219.201, the railroad (or railroads) must take all 
practicable steps to assure that all covered employees of the railroad 
directly involved in the accident or incident provide blood and urine 
specimens for toxicological testing by FRA. Such employees must 
cooperate in the provision of specimens as described in this part and 
Appendix C to this part.
    (ii) If the conditions for mandatory toxicological testing exist, 
the railroad may also require employees to provide breath for testing in 
accordance with the procedures set forth in part 40 of this title and in 
this part, if such testing does not interfere with timely collection of 
required specimens.
    (2) Such employees must specifically include each and every 
operating employee assigned as a crew member of any train involved in 
the accident or incident. In any case where an operator, dispatcher, 
signal maintainer or other covered employee is directly and 
contemporaneously involved in the circumstances of the accident/
incident, those employees must also be required to provide specimens.
    (3) An employee must be excluded from testing under the following 
circumstances: In any case of an accident/incident for which testing is 
mandated only under Sec. 219.201(a)(2) (an ``impact accident''), 
Sec. 219.201(a)(3) (``fatal train incident''), or Sec. 219.201(a)(4) (a 
``passenger train accident with injury'') if the railroad representative 
can immediately determine, on the basis of specific information, that 
the employee had no role in the cause(s) or severity of the accident/
incident. The railroad representative must consider any such information 
immediately available at the time the qualifying event determination is 
made under Sec. 219.201.
    (4) The following provisions govern accidents/incidents involving 
non-covered employees:
    (i) Surviving non-covered employees are not subject to testing under 
this subpart.
    (ii) Testing of the remains of non-covered employees who are fatally 
injured in train accidents and incidents is required.
    (b) Timely specimen collection. (1) The railroad must make every 
reasonable effort to assure that specimens are provided as soon as 
possible after the accident or incident.
    (2) This paragraph (b) must not be construed to inhibit the 
employees required to be tested from performing, in the immediate 
aftermath of the accident or incident, any duties that may be necessary 
for the preservation of life or property. However, where practical, the 
railroad must utilize other employees to perform such duties.
    (3) In the case of a passenger train which is in proper condition to 
continue to the next station or its destination after an accident or 
incident, the railroad must consider the safety and convenience of 
passengers in determining whether the crew is immediately available for 
testing. A relief crew must be called to relieve the train crew as soon 
as possible.
    (4) Covered employees who may be subject to testing under this 
subpart must be retained in duty status for the period necessary to make 
the determinations required by Sec. 219.201 and this section and (as 
appropriate) to complete the specimen collection procedure. An employee 
may not be recalled for testing under this subpart if that employee has 
been released from duty under the normal procedures of the railroad, 
except that an employee may be immediately recalled for testing if--
    (i) The employee could not be retained in duty status because the 
employee went off duty under normal carrier procedures prior to being 
contacted by a railroad supervisor and instructed to remain on duty 
pending completion of the required determinations (e.g., in the case of 
a dispatcher or signal maintainer remote from the scene of an accident 
who was unaware of the occurrence at the time the employee went off 
duty);

[[Page 220]]

    (ii) The railroad's preliminary investigation (contemporaneous with 
the determination required by Sec. 219.201) indicates a clear 
probability that the employee played a major role in the cause or 
severity of the accident/incident; and
    (iii) The accident/incident actually occurred during the employee's 
duty tour. An employee who has been transported to receive medical care 
is not released from duty for purposes of this section. Nothing in this 
section prohibits the subsequent testing of an employee who has failed 
to remain available for testing as required (i.e., who is absent without 
leave); but subsequent testing does not excuse such refusal by the 
employee timely to provide the required specimens.
    (c) Place of specimen collection. (1) Employees must be transported 
to an independent medical facility where the specimens must be obtained. 
The railroad must pre-designate for such testing one or more such 
facilities in reasonable proximity to any location where the railroad 
conducts operations. Designation must be made on the basis of the 
willingness of the facility to conduct specimen collection and the 
ability of the facility to complete specimen collection promptly, 
professionally, and in accordance with pertinent requirements of this 
part. In all cases blood may be drawn only by a qualified medical 
professional or by a qualified technician subject to the supervision of 
a qualified medical professional.
    (2) In the case of an injured employee, the railroad must request 
the treating medical facility to obtain the specimens.
    (d) Obtaining cooperation of facility. (1) In seeking the 
cooperation of a medical facility in obtaining a specimen under this 
subpart, the railroad shall, as necessary, make specific reference to 
the requirements of this subpart.
    (2) If an injured employee is unconscious or otherwise unable to 
evidence consent to the procedure and the treating medical facility 
declines to obtain blood specimens after having been acquainted with the 
requirements of this subpart, the railroad must immediately notify the 
duty officer at the National Response Center (NRC) at (800) 424-8801 or 
(800) 424-8802, stating the employee's name, the medical facility, its 
location, the name of the appropriate decisional authority at the 
medical facility, and the telephone number at which that person can be 
reached. FRA will then take appropriate measures to assist in obtaining 
the required specimen.
    (e) Discretion of physician. Nothing in this subpart may be 
construed to limit the discretion of a physician to determine whether 
drawing a blood specimen is consistent with the health of an injured 
employee or an employee afflicted by any other condition that may 
preclude drawing the specified quantity of blood.

Sec. 219.205  Specimen collection and handling.

    (a) General. Urine and blood specimens must be obtained, marked, 
preserved, handled, and made available to FRA consistent with the 
requirements of this subpart, and the technical specifications set forth 
in Appendix C to this part.
    (b) Information requirements. In order to process specimens, analyze 
the significance of laboratory findings, and notify the railroads and 
employees of test results, it is necessary to obtain basic information 
concerning the accident/incident and any treatment administered after 
the accident/incident. Accordingly, the railroad representative must 
complete the information required by Form FRA 6180.73 (revised) for 
shipping with the specimens. Each employee subject to testing must 
cooperate in completion of the required information on Form FRA F 
6180.74 (revised) for inclusion in the shipping kit and processing of 
the specimens. The railroad representative must request an appropriate 
representative of the medical facility to complete the remaining portion 
of the information on each Form 6180.74. One Form 6180.73 must be 
forwarded in the shipping kit with each group of specimens. One Form 
6180.74 must be forwarded in the shipping kit for each employee who 
provides specimens. Forms 6180.73 and 6180.74 may be ordered from the 
laboratory specified in Appendix B to this part; the forms are also 
provided to

[[Page 221]]

railroads free of charge in the shipping kit. (See paragraph (c) of this 
section.)
    (c) Shipping kit. (1) FRA and the laboratory designated in Appendix 
B to this part make available for purchase a limited number of standard 
shipping kits for the purpose of routine handling of toxicological 
specimens under this subpart. Whenever possible, specimens must be 
placed in the shipping kit prepared for shipment according to the 
instructions provided in the kit and Appendix C to this part.
    (2) Kits may be ordered directly from the laboratory designated in 
Appendix B to this part.
    (3) FRA maintains a limited number of kits at its field offices. A 
Class III railroad may utilize kits in FRA's possession, rather than 
maintaining such kits on its property.
    (d) Shipment. Specimens must be shipped as soon as possible by pre-
paid air express or air freight (or other means adequate to ensure 
delivery within twenty-four (24) hours from time of shipment) to the 
laboratory designated in Appendix B to this part. Where express courier 
pickup is available, the railroad must request the medical facility to 
transfer the sealed toxicology kit directly to the express courier for 
transportation. If courier pickup is not available at the medical 
facility where the specimens are collected or for any other reason 
prompt transfer by the medical facility cannot be assured, the railroad 
must promptly transport the sealed shipping kit holding the specimens to 
the most expeditious point of shipment via air express, air freight or 
equivalent means. The railroad must maintain and document secure chain 
of custody of the kit from release by the medical facility to delivery 
for transportation, as described in Appendix C to this part.

Sec. 219.206  FRA access to breath test results.

    Documentation of breath test results must be made available to FRA 
consistent with the requirements of this subpart, and the technical 
specifications set forth in Appendix C to this part.

Sec. 219.207  Fatality.

    (a) In the case of an employee fatality in an accident or incident 
described in Sec. 219.201, body fluid and/or tissue specimens must be 
obtained from the remains of the employee for toxicological testing. To 
ensure that specimens are timely collected, the railroad must 
immediately notify the appropriate local authority (such as a coroner or 
medical examiner) of the fatality and the requirements of this subpart, 
making available the shipping kit and requesting the local authority to 
assist in obtaining the necessary body fluid or tissue specimens. The 
railroad must also seek the assistance of the custodian of the remains, 
if a person other than the local authority.
    (b) If the local authority or custodian of the remains declines to 
cooperate in obtaining the necessary specimens, the railroad must 
immediately notify the duty officer at the National Response Center 
(NRC) at (800) 424-8801 or (800) 424-8802 by providing the following 
information:
    (1) Date and location of the accident or incident;
    (2) Railroad;
    (3) Name of the deceased;
    (4) Name and telephone number of custodian of the remains; and
    (5) Name and telephone number of local authority contacted.
    (c) A coroner, medical examiner, pathologist, Aviation Medical 
Examiner, or other qualified professional is authorized to remove the 
required body fluid and/or tissue specimens from the remains on request 
of the railroad or FRA pursuant to this part; and, in so acting, such 
person is the delegate of the FRA Administrator under sections 20107 and 
20108 of title 49, United States Code (but not the agent of the 
Secretary for purposes of the Federal Tort Claims Act (chapter 171 of 
title 28, United States Code). Such qualified professional may rely upon 
the representations of the railroad or FRA representative with respect 
to the occurrence of the event requiring that toxicological tests be 
conducted and the coverage of the deceased employee under this part.

[[Page 222]]

    (d) Appendix C to this part specifies body fluid and tissue 
specimens required for toxicological analysis in the case of a fatality.

Sec. 219.209  Reports of tests and refusals.

    (a)(1) A railroad that has experienced one or more events for which 
specimens were obtained must provide prompt telephonic notification 
summarizing such events. Notification must immediately be provided to 
the duty officer at the National Response Center (NRC) at (800) 424-8802 
and to the Office of Safety, FRA, at (202) 493-6313.
    (2) Each telephonic report must contain:
    (i) Name of railroad;
    (ii) Name, title and telephone number of person making the report;
    (iii) Time, date and location of the accident/incident;
    (iv) Brief summary of the circumstances of the accident/incident, 
including basis for testing; and
    (v) Number, names and occupations of employees tested.
    (b) If the railroad is unable, as a result of non-cooperation of an 
employee or for any other reason, to obtain a specimen and cause it to 
be provided to FRA as required by this subpart, the railroad must make a 
concise narrative report of the reason for such failure and, if 
appropriate, any action taken in response to the cause of such failure. 
This report must be appended to the report of the accident/incident 
required to be submitted under Part 225 of this chapter.
    (c) If a test required by this section is not administered within 
four hours following the accident or incident, the railroad must prepare 
and maintain on file a record stating the reasons the test was not 
promptly administered. Records must be submitted to FRA upon request of 
the FRA Associate Administrator for Safety.

Sec. 219.211  Analysis and follow-up.

    (a) The laboratory designated in Appendix B to this part undertakes 
prompt analysis of specimens provided under this subpart, consistent 
with the need to develop all relevant information and produce a complete 
report. Specimens are analyzed for alcohol and controlled substances 
specified by FRA under protocols specified by FRA, summarized in 
Appendix C to this part, which have been submitted to Health and Human 
Services for acceptance. Specimens may be analyzed for other impairing 
substances specified by FRA as necessary to the particular accident 
investigation.
    (b) Results of post-accident toxicological testing under this 
subpart are reported to the railroad's Medical Review Officer and the 
employee. The MRO and the railroad must treat the test results and any 
information concerning medical use or administration of drugs provided 
under this subpart in the same confidential manner as if subject to 
subpart H of this part, except where publicly disclosed by FRA or the 
National Transportation Safety Board.
    (c) With respect to a surviving employee, a test reported as 
positive for alcohol or a controlled substance by the designated 
laboratory must be reviewed by the railroad's Medical Review Officer 
with respect to any claim of use or administration of medications 
(consistent with Sec. 219.103) that could account for the laboratory 
findings. The Medical Review Officer must promptly report the results of 
each review to the Associate Administrator for Safety, FRA, Washington, 
DC 20590. Such report must be in writing and must reference the 
employing railroad, accident/incident date, and location, and the 
envelope must be marked ``ADMINISTRATIVELY CONFIDENTIAL: ATTENTION 
ALCOHOL/DRUG PROGRAM MANAGER.'' The report must state whether the MRO 
reported the test result to the employing railroad as positive or 
negative and the basis of any determination that analytes detected by 
the laboratory derived from authorized use (including a statement of the 
compound prescribed, dosage/frequency, and any restrictions imposed by 
the authorized medical practitioner). Unless specifically requested by 
FRA in writing, the Medical Review Officer may not disclose to FRA the 
underlying physical condition for which any medication was authorized or 
administered. The FRA is not bound by the railroad Medical Review 
Officer's determination, but that determination will be considered by 
FRA in

[[Page 223]]

relation to the accident/incident investigation and with respect to any 
enforcement action under consideration.
    (d) To the extent permitted by law, FRA treats test results 
indicating medical use of controlled substances consistent with 
Sec. 219.103 (and other information concerning medically authorized drug 
use or administration provided incident to such testing) as 
administratively confidential and withholds public disclosure, except 
where it is necessary to consider this information in an accident 
investigation in relation to determination of probable cause. (However, 
as further provided in this section, FRA may provide results of testing 
under this subpart and supporting documentation to the National 
Transportation Safety Board.)
    (e) An employee may respond in writing to the results of the test 
prior to the preparation of any final investigation report concerning 
the accident or incident. An employee wishing to respond may do so by 
letter addressed to the Alcohol/Drug Program Manager, Office of Safety, 
FRA, 400 Seventh Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20590 within 45 days of 
receipt of the test results. Any such submission must refer to the 
accident date, railroad and location, must state the position occupied 
by the employee on the date of the accident/incident, and must identify 
any information contained therein that the employee requests be withheld 
from public disclosure on grounds of personal privacy (but the decision 
whether to honor such request will be made by the FRA on the basis of 
controlling law).
    (f)(1) The toxicology report may contain a statement of 
pharmacological significance to assist FRA and other parties in 
understanding the data reported. No such statement may be construed as a 
finding of probable cause in the accident or incident.
    (2) The toxicology report is a part of the report of the accident/
incident and therefore subject to the limitation of 49 U.S.C. 20903 
(prohibiting use of the report for any purpose in a civil action for 
damages resulting from a matter mentioned in the report).
    (g)(1) It is in the public interest to ensure that any railroad 
disciplinary actions that may result from accidents and incidents for 
which testing is required under this subpart are disposed of on the 
basis of the most complete and reliable information available so that 
responsive action will be appropriate. Therefore, during the interval 
between an accident or incident and the date that the railroad receives 
notification of the results of the toxicological analysis, any provision 
of collective bargaining agreements establishing maximum periods for 
charging employees with rule violations, or for holding an 
investigation, may not be deemed to run as to any offense involving the 
accident or incident (i.e., such periods must be tolled).
    (2) This provision may not be construed to excuse the railroad from 
any obligation to timely charge an employee (or provide other actual 
notice) where the railroad obtains sufficient information relating to 
alcohol or drug use, impairment or possession or other rule violations 
prior to the receipt to toxicological analysis.
    (3) This provision does not authorize holding any employee out of 
service pending receipt of toxicological analysis; nor does it restrict 
a railroad from taking such action in an appropriate case.
    (h) Except as provided in Sec. 219.201 (with respect to non-
qualifying events), each specimen (including each split specimen) 
provided under this subpart is retained for not less than three months 
following the date of the accident or incident (two years from the date 
of the accident or incident in the case of a specimen testing positive 
for alcohol or a controlled substance). Post-mortem specimens may be 
made available to the National Transportation Safety Board (on request).
    (i) An employee (donor) may, within 60 days of the date of the 
toxicology report, request that his or her split specimen be tested by 
the designated laboratory or by another laboratory certified by Health 
and Human Services under that Department's Guidelines for Federal 
Workplace Drug Testing Programs that has available an appropriate, 
validated assay for the fluid and compound declared positive. Since some 
analytes may deteriorate during storage, detected levels of the compound 
shall, as technically appropriate,

[[Page 224]]

be reported and considered corroborative of the original test result. 
Any request for a retest shall be in writing, specify the railroad, 
accident date and location, be signed by the employee/donor, be 
addressed to the Associate Administrator for Safety, Federal Railroad 
Administration, Washington, DC 20590, and be designated 
``ADMINISTRATIVELY CONFIDENTIAL: ATTENTION ALCOHOL/DRUG PROGRAM 
MANAGER.'' The expense of any employee-requested split specimen test at 
a laboratory other than the laboratory designated under this subpart 
shall be borne by the employee.

Sec. 219.213  Unlawful refusals; consequences.

    (a) Disqualification. An employee who refuses to cooperate in 
providing breath, blood or urine specimens following an accident or 
incident specified in this subpart must be withdrawn from covered 
service and must be deemed disqualified for covered service for a period 
of nine (9) months in accordance with the conditions specified in 
Sec. 219.107.
    (b) Procedures. Prior to or upon withdrawing the employee from 
covered service under this section, the railroad must provide notice of 
the reason for this action and an opportunity for hearing before a 
presiding officer other than the charging official. The employee is 
entitled to the procedural protection set out in Sec. 219.104(d).
    (c) Subject of hearing. The hearing required by this section must 
determine whether the employee refused to submit to testing, having been 
requested to submit, under authority of this subpart, by a 
representative of the railroad. In determining whether a 
disqualification is required, the hearing official shall, as 
appropriate, also consider the following:
    (1) Whether the railroad made a good faith determination, based on 
reasonable inquiry, that the accident or incident was within the 
mandatory testing requirements of this subpart; and
    (2) In a case where a blood test was refused on the ground it would 
be inconsistent with the employee's health, whether such refusal was 
made in good faith and based on medical advice.

                      Subpart D--Testing for Cause

Sec. 219.300  Mandatory reasonable suspicion testing.

    (a) Requirements. (1) A railroad must require a covered employee to 
submit to an alcohol test when the railroad has reasonable suspicion to 
believe that the employee has violated any prohibition of subpart B of 
this part concerning use of alcohol. The railroad's determination that 
reasonable suspicion exists to require the covered employee to undergo 
an alcohol test must be based on specific, contemporaneous, articulable 
observations concerning the appearance, behavior, speech or body odors 
of the employee.
    (2) A railroad must require a covered employee to submit to a drug 
test when the railroad has reasonable suspicion to believe that the 
employee has violated the prohibitions of subpart B of this part 
concerning use of controlled substances. The railroad's determination 
that reasonable suspicion exists to require the covered employee to 
undergo a drug test must be based on specific, contemporaneous, 
articulable observations concerning the appearance, behavior, speech or 
body odors of the employee. Such observations may include indications of 
the chronic and withdrawal effects of drugs.
    (b)(1) With respect to an alcohol test, the required observations 
must be made by a supervisor trained in accordance with Sec. 219.11(g). 
The supervisor who makes the determination that reasonable suspicion 
exists may not conduct testing on that employee.
    (2) With respect to a drug test, the required observations must be 
made by two supervisors, at least one of whom is trained in accordance 
with Sec. 219.11(g).
    (c) Nothing in this section may be construed to require the conduct 
of alcohol testing or drug testing when the employee is apparently in 
need of immediate medical attention.
    (d)(1) If a test required by this section is not administered within 
two hours following the determination under this section, the railroad 
must prepare and maintain on file a record stating the reasons the test 
was not

[[Page 225]]

properly administered. If a test required by this section is not 
administered within eight hours of the determination under this section, 
the railroad must cease attempts to administer an alcohol test and must 
state in the record the reasons for not administering the test. Records 
must be submitted to FRA upon request of the FRA Administrator.
    (2) [Reserved]

Sec. 219.301  Testing for reasonable cause.

    (a) Authorization. A railroad may, under the conditions specified in 
this subpart, require any covered employee, as a condition of employment 
in covered service, to cooperate in breath or body fluid testing, or 
both, to determine compliance with Secs. 219.101 and 219.102 or a 
railroad rule implementing the requirements of Secs. 219.101 and 
219.102. This authority is limited to testing after observations or 
events that occur during duty hours (including any period of overtime or 
emergency service). The provisions of this subpart apply only when, and 
to the extent that, the test in question is conducted in reliance upon 
the authority conferred by this section. Section 219.23 prescribes the 
notice to an employee that is required when an employee is required to 
provide a breath or body fluid specimen under this part. A railroad may 
not require an employee to be tested under the authority of this subpart 
unless reasonable cause, as defined in this section, exists with respect 
to that employee.
    (b) For cause breath testing. In addition to reasonable suspicion as 
described in Sec. 219.300, the following circumstances constitute cause 
for the administration of alcohol tests under this section:
    (1) [Reserved]
    (2) Accident/incident. The employee has been involved in an accident 
or incident reportable under Part 225 of this chapter, and a supervisory 
employee of the railroad has a reasonable belief, based on specific, 
articulable facts, that the employee's acts or omissions contributed to 
the occurrence or severity of the accident or incident; or
    (3) Rule violation. The employee has been directly involved in one 
of the following operating rule violations or errors:
    (i) Noncompliance with a train order, track warrant, timetable, 
signal indication, special instruction or other direction with respect 
to movement of a train that involves--
    (A) Occupancy of a block or other segment of track to which entry 
was not authorized;
    (B) Failure to clear a track to permit opposing or following 
movement to pass;
    (C) Moving across a railroad crossing at grade without 
authorization; or
    (D) Passing an absolute restrictive signal or passing a restrictive 
signal without stopping (if required);
    (ii) Failure to protect a train as required by a rule consistent 
with Sec. 218.37 of this chapter (including failure to protect a train 
that is fouling an adjacent track, where required by the railroad's 
rules);
    (iii) Operation of a train at a speed that exceeds the maximum 
authorized speed by at least ten (10) miles per hour or by fifty percent 
(50%) of such maximum authorized speed, whichever is less;
    (iv) Alignment of a switch in violation of a railroad rule, failure 
to align a switch as required for movement, operation of a switch under 
a train, or unauthorized running through a switch;
    (v) Failure to apply or stop short of derail as required;
    (vi) Failure to secure a hand brake or failure to secure sufficient 
hand brakes, as required;
    (vii) Entering a crossover before both switches are lined for 
movement; or
    (viii) In the case of a person performing a dispatching function or 
block operator function, issuance of a train order or establishment of a 
route that fails to provide proper protection for a train.
    (c) For cause drug testing. In addition to reasonable suspicion as 
described in Sec. 219.300, each of the conditions set forth in 
paragraphs (b)(2) (``accident/incident'') and (b)(3) (``rule 
violation'') of this section as constituting cause for alcohol testing 
also constitutes cause with respect to drug testing.
    (d) [Reserved]

[[Page 226]]

    (e) Limitation for subpart C events. The compulsory drug testing 
authority conferred by this section does not apply with respect to any 
event subject to post-accident toxicological testing as required by 
Sec. 219.201. However, use of compulsory breath test authority is 
authorized in any case where breath test results can be obtained in a 
timely manner at the scene of the accident and conduct of such tests 
does not materially impede the collection of specimens under Subpart C 
of this part.

Sec. 219.302  Prompt specimen collection; time limitation.

    (a) Testing under this subpart may only be conducted promptly 
following the observations or events upon which the testing decision is 
based, consistent with the need to protect life and property.
    (b) No employee may be required to participate in alcohol or drug 
testing under this section after the expiration of an eight-hour period 
from--
    (1) The time of the observations or other events described in this 
section; or
    (2) In the case of an accident/incident, the time a responsible 
railroad supervisor receives notice of the event providing reasonable 
cause for conduct of the test.
    (c) An employee may not be tested under this subpart if that 
employee has been released from duty under the normal procedures of the 
railroad. An employee who has been transported to receive medical care 
is not released from duty for purposes of this section. Nothing in this 
section prohibits the subsequent testing of an employee who has failed 
to remain available for testing as required (i.e., who is absent without 
leave).
    (d) As used in this subpart, a ``responsible railroad supervisor'' 
means any responsible line supervisor (e.g., a trainmaster or road 
foreman of engines) or superior official in authority over the employee 
to be tested.
    (e) In the case of a drug test, the eight-hour requirement is 
satisfied if the employee has been delivered to the collection site 
(where the collector is present) and the request has been made to 
commence collection of the drug testing specimens within that period.
    (f) [Reserved]
    (g) Section 219.23 prescribes the notice to an employee that is 
required to provide breath or a body fluid specimen under this part.

             Subpart E--Identification of Troubled Employees

Sec. 219.401  Requirement for policies.

    (a) The purpose of this subpart is to prevent the use of alcohol and 
drugs in connection with covered service.
    (b) Each railroad must adopt, publish and implement--
    (1) A policy designed to encourage and facilitate the identification 
of those covered employees who abuse alcohol or drugs as a part of a 
treatable condition and to ensure that such employees are provided the 
opportunity to obtain counseling or treatment before those problems 
manifest themselves in detected violations of this part (hereafter 
``voluntary referral policy''); and
    (2) A policy designed to foster employee participation in preventing 
violations of this subpart and encourage co-worker participation in the 
direct enforcement of this part (hereafter ``co-worker report policy'').
    (c) A railroad may comply with this subpart by adopting, publishing 
and implementing policies meeting the specific requirements of 
Secs. 219.403 and 219.405 or by complying with Sec. 219.407.
    (d) If a railroad complies with this part by adopting, publishing 
and implementing policies consistent with Secs. 219.403 and 219.405, the 
railroad must make such policies, and publications announcing such 
policies, available for inspection and copying by FRA.
    (e) Nothing in this subpart may be construed to--
    (1) Require payment of compensation for any period an employee is 
out of service under a voluntary referral or co-worker report policy;
    (2) Require a railroad to adhere to a voluntary referral or co-
worker report policy in a case where the referral or report is made for 
the purpose, or with the effect, of anticipating the imminent and 
probable detection of a rule violation by a supervising employee; or
    (3) Limit the discretion of a railroad to dismiss or otherwise 
discipline an employee for specific rule violations or

[[Page 227]]

criminal offenses, except as specifically provided by this subpart.

Sec. 219.403  Voluntary referral policy.

    (a) Scope. This section prescribes minimum standards for voluntary 
referral policies. Nothing in this section restricts a railroad from 
adopting, publishing and implementing a voluntary referral policy that 
affords more favorable conditions to employees troubled by alcohol or 
drug abuse problems, consistent with the railroad's responsibility to 
prevent violations of Secs. 219.101 and 219.102.
    (b) Required provisions. A voluntary referral policy must include 
the following provisions:
    (1) A covered employee who is affected by an alcohol or drug use 
problem may maintain an employment relationship with the railroad if, 
before the employee is charged with conduct deemed by the railroad 
sufficient to warrant dismissal, the employee seeks assistance through 
the railroad for the employee's alcohol or drug use problem or is 
referred for such assistance by another employee or by a representative 
of the employee's collective bargaining unit. The railroad must specify 
whether, and under what circumstances, its policy provides for the 
acceptance of referrals from other sources, including (at the option of 
the railroad) supervisory employees.
    (2) Except as may be provided under paragraph (c) of this section, 
the railroad treats the referral and subsequent handling, including 
counseling and treatment, as confidential.
    (3) The railroad will, to the extent necessary for treatment and 
rehabilitation, grant the employee a leave of absence from the railroad 
for the period necessary to complete primary treatment and establish 
control over the employee's alcohol or drug problem. The policy must 
allow a leave of absence of not less than 45 days, if necessary for the 
purpose of meeting initial treatment needs.
    (4) Except as may be provided under paragraph (c)(2) of this 
section, the employee will be returned to service on the recommendation 
of the substance abuse professional. Approval to return to service may 
not be unreasonably withheld.
    (5) With respect to a certified locomotive engineer or a candidate 
for certification, the railroad must meet the requirements of 
Sec. 240.119(e) of this chapter.
    (c) Optional provisions. A voluntary referral policy may include any 
of the following provisions, at the option of the railroad:
    (1) The policy may provide that the rule of confidentiality is 
waived if--
    (i) The employee at any time refuses to cooperate in a recommended 
course of counseling or treatment; and/or
    (ii) The employee is later determined, after investigation, to have 
been involved in an alcohol or drug-related disciplinary offense growing 
out of subsequent conduct.
    (2) The policy may require successful completion of a return-to-
service medical examination as a further condition on reinstatement in 
covered service.
    (3) The policy may provide that it does not apply to an employee who 
has previously been assisted by the railroad under a policy or program 
substantially consistent with this section or who has previously elected 
to waive investigation under Sec. 219.405 (co-worker report policy).
    (4) The policy may provide that, in order to invoke its benefits, 
the employee must report to the contact designated by the railroad 
either:
    (i) During non-duty hours (i.e., at a time when the employee is off 
duty); or
    (ii) While unimpaired and otherwise in compliance with the 
railroad's alcohol and drug rules consistent with this subpart.

Sec. 219.405  Co-worker report policy.

    (a) Scope. This section prescribes minimum standards for co-worker 
report policies. Nothing in this section restricts a railroad from 
adopting, publishing and implementing a policy that affords more 
favorable conditions to employees troubled by alcohol or drug abuse 
problems, consistent with the railroad's responsibility to prevent 
violations of Secs. 219.101 and 219.102.
    (b) Employment relationship. A co-worker report policy must provide 
that a covered employee may maintain an employment relationship with the 
railroad following an alleged first offense

[[Page 228]]

under this part or the railroad's alcohol and drug rules, subject to the 
conditions and procedures contained in this section.
    (c) General conditions and procedures. (1) The alleged violation 
must come to the attention of the railroad as a result of a report by a 
co-worker that the employee was apparently unsafe to work with or was, 
or appeared to be, in violation of this part or the railroad's alcohol 
and drug rules.
    (2) If the railroad representative determines that the employee is 
in violation, the railroad may immediately remove the employee from 
service in accordance with its existing policies and procedures.
    (3) The employee must elect to waive investigation on the rule 
charge and must contact the substance abuse professional within a 
reasonable period specified by the policy.
    (4) The substance abuse professional must schedule necessary 
interviews with the employee and complete an evaluation within 10 
calendar days of the date on which the employee contacts the 
professional with a request for evaluation under the policy, unless it 
becomes necessary to refer the employee for further evaluation. In each 
case, all necessary evaluations must be completed within 20 days of the 
date on which the employee contacts the professional.
    (d) When treatment is required. If the substance abuse professional 
determines that the employee is affected by psychological or chemical 
dependence on alcohol or a drug or by another identifiable and treatable 
mental or physical disorder involving the abuse of alcohol or drugs as a 
primary manifestation, the following conditions and procedures apply:
    (1) The railroad must, to the extent necessary for treatment and 
rehabilitation, grant the employee a leave of absence from the railroad 
for the period necessary to complete primary treatment and establish 
control over the employee's alcohol or drug problem. The policy must 
allow a leave of absence of not less than 45 days, if necessary for the 
purpose of meeting initial treatment needs.
    (2) The employee must agree to undertake and successfully complete a 
course of treatment deemed acceptable by the substance abuse 
professional.
    (3) The railroad must promptly return the employee to service, on 
recommendation of the substance abuse professional, when the employee 
has established control over the substance abuse problem. Return to 
service may also be conditioned on successful completion of a return-to-
service medical examination. Approval to return to service may not be 
unreasonably withheld.
    (4) Following return to service, the employee, as a further 
condition on withholding of discipline, may, as necessary, be required 
to participate in a reasonable program of follow-up treatment for a 
period not to exceed 60 months from the date the employee was originally 
withdrawn from service.
    (e) When treatment is not required. If the substance abuse 
professional determines that the employee is not affected by an 
identifiable and treatable mental or physical disorder--
    (1) The railroad must return the employee to service within 5 days 
after completion of the evaluation.
    (2) During or following the out-of-service period, the railroad may 
require the employee to participate in a program of education and 
training concerning the effects of alcohol and drugs on occupational or 
transportation safety.
    (f) Follow-up tests. A railroad may conduct return-to-service and/or 
follow-up tests (as described in Sec. 219.104) of an employee who waives 
investigation and is determined to be ready to return to service under 
this section.

Sec. 219.407  Alternate policies.

    (a) In lieu of a policy under Sec. 219.403 (voluntary referral) or 
Sec. 219.405 (co-worker report), or both, a railroad may adopt, publish 
and implement, with respect to a particular class or craft of covered 
employees, an alternate policy or policies having as their purpose the 
prevention of alcohol or drug use in railroad operations, if such policy 
or policies have the written concurrence of the recognized 
representatives of such employees.

[[Page 229]]

    (b) The concurrence of recognized employee representatives in an 
alternate policy may be evidenced by a collective bargaining agreement 
or any other document describing the class or craft of employees to 
which the alternate policy applies. The agreement or other document must 
make express reference to this part and to the intention of the railroad 
and employee representatives that the alternate policy applies in lieu 
of the policy required by Sec. 219.403, Sec. 219.405, or both.
    (c) The railroad must file the agreement or other document described 
in paragraph (b) of this section with the Associate Administrator for 
Safety, FRA. If the alternate policy is amended or revoked, the railroad 
must file a notice of such amendment or revocation at least 30 days 
prior to the effective date of such action.
    (d) This section does not excuse a railroad from adopting, 
publishing and implementing the policies required by Secs. 219.403 and 
219.405 with respect to any group of covered employees not within the 
coverage of an appropriate alternate policy.

                     Subpart F--Pre-Employment Tests

Sec. 219.501  Pre-employment drug testing.

    (a) Prior to the first time a covered employee performs covered 
service for a railroad, the employee must undergo testing for drugs. No 
railroad may allow a covered employee to perform covered service, unless 
the employee has been administered a test for drugs with a result that 
did not indicate the misuse of controlled substances. This requirement 
applies to final applicants for employment and to employees seeking to 
transfer for the first time from non-covered service to duties involving 
covered service.
    (b) As used in subpart H of this part with respect to a test 
required under this subpart, the term covered employee includes an 
applicant for pre-employment testing only. In the case of an applicant 
who declines to be tested and withdraws the application for employment, 
no record may be maintained of the declination.

Sec. 219.502  Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment 
alcohol testing under this part. If a railroad chooses to conduct pre-
employment alcohol testing, the railroad must comply with the following 
requirements:
    (1) It must conduct a pre-employment alcohol test before the first 
performance of safety-sensitive functions by every covered employee 
(whether a new employee or someone who has transferred to a position 
involving the performance of safety-sensitive functions).
    (2) It must treat all safety-sensitive employees performing safety-
sensitive functions the same for the purpose of pre-employment alcohol 
testing (i.e., it must not test some covered employees and not others).
    (3) It must conduct the pre-employment tests after making a 
contingent offer of employment or transfer, subject to the employee 
passing the pre-employment alcohol test.
    (4) It must conduct all pre-employment alcohol tests using the 
alcohol testing procedures of part 40 of this title.
    (5) It must not allow a covered employee to begin performing safety-
sensitive functions unless the result of the employee's test indicates 
an alcohol concentration of less than 0.04.
    (b) As used in subpart H of this part, with respect to a test 
authorized under this subpart, the term covered employee includes an 
applicant for pre-employment testing only. In the case of an applicant 
who declines to be tested and withdraws the application for employment, 
no record may be maintained of the declination.

Sec. 219.503  Notification; records.

    The railroad must provide for medical review of drug test results as 
provided in subpart H of this part. The railroad must notify the 
applicant of the results of the drug and alcohol tests in the same 
manner as provided for employees in subpart H of this part. Records must 
be maintained confidentially and be retained in the same manner as 
required under subpart J of this part for employee test records, except

[[Page 230]]

that such records need not reflect the identity of an applicant whose 
application for employment in covered service was denied.

Sec. 219.505  Refusals.

    An applicant who has refused to submit to pre-employment testing 
under this section may not be employed in covered service based upon the 
application and examination with respect to which such refusal was made. 
This section does not create any right on the part of the applicant to 
have a subsequent application considered; nor does it restrict the 
discretion of the railroad to entertain a subsequent application for 
employment from the same person.

           Subpart G--Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs

Sec. 219.601  Railroad random drug testing programs.

    (a) Submission. Each railroad must submit for FRA approval a random 
testing program meeting the requirements of this subpart. A railroad 
commencing operations must submit such a program not later than 30 days 
prior to such commencement. The program must be submitted to the 
Associate Administrator for Safety, FRA, for review and approval by the 
FRA Administrator. If, after approval, a railroad desires to amend the 
random testing program implemented under this subpart, the railroad must 
file with FRA a notice of such amendment at least 30 days prior to the 
intended effective date of such action. A railroad already subject to 
this subpart that becomes subject to this subpart with respect to one or 
more additional employees must amend its program not later than 60 days 
after these employees become subject to this subpart and file with FRA a 
notice of such amendment at least 30 days prior to the intended 
effective date of such action. A program responsive to the requirements 
of this section or any amendment to the program may not be implemented 
prior to approval.
    (b) Form of programs. Random testing programs submitted by or on 
behalf of each railroad under this subpart must meet the following 
criteria, and the railroad and its managers, supervisors, officials and 
other employees and agents must conform to such criteria in implementing 
the program:
    (1) Selection of covered employees for testing must be made by a 
method employing objective, neutral criteria which ensure that every 
covered employee has a substantially equal statistical chance of being 
selected within a specified time frame. The method may not permit 
subjective factors to play a role in selection, i.e., no employee may be 
selected as the result of the exercise of discretion by the railroad. 
The selection method must be capable of verification with respect to the 
randomness of the selection process, and any records necessary to 
document random selection must be retained for not less than 24 months 
from the date upon which the particular specimens were collected.
    (2)(i) The program must select for testing a sufficient number of 
employees so that, during the first 12 months--
    (A) The random testing program is spread reasonably through the 12-
month period.
    (B) [Reserved]
    (ii) During the subsequent 12-month period, the program must select 
for testing a sufficient number of employees so that the number of tests 
conducted will equal at least 50 percent of the number of covered 
employees. Annualized percentage rates must be determined by reference 
to the total number of covered employees employed by the railroad at the 
beginning of the particular twelve-month period or by an alternate 
method specified in the plan approved by the Associate Administrator for 
Safety, FRA. If the railroad conducts random testing through a 
consortium, the annual rate may be calculated for each individual 
employer or for the total number of covered employees subject to random 
testing by the consortium.
    (3) Railroad random testing programs must ensure to the maximum 
extent practicable that each employee perceives the possibility that a 
random test may be required on any day the employee reports for work.
    (4) Notice of an employee's selection may not be provided until the 
duty

[[Page 231]]

tour in which testing is to be conducted, and then only so far in 
advance as is reasonably necessary to ensure the employee's presence at 
the time and place set for testing.
    (5) The program must include testing procedures and safeguards, and 
procedures for action based on positive test results, consistent with 
this part.
    (6) An employee must be subject to testing only while on duty. Only 
employees who perform covered service for the railroad are subject to 
testing under this part. In the case of employees who during some duty 
tours perform covered service and during others do not, the railroad 
program must specify the extent to which, and the circumstances under 
which they are to be subject to testing. To the extent practical within 
the limitations of this part and in the context of the railroad's 
operations, the railroad program must provide that employees are subject 
to the possibility of random testing on any day they actually perform 
covered service.
    (7) Each time an employee is notified for random drug testing the 
employee will be informed that selection was made on a random basis.
    (c) Approval. The Associate Administrator for Safety, FRA, will 
notify the railroad in writing whether the program is approved as 
consistent with the criteria set forth in this part. If the Associate 
Administrator for Safety determines that the program does not conform to 
those criteria, the Associate Administrator for Safety will inform the 
railroad of any matters preventing approval of the program, with 
specific explanation as to necessary revisions. The railroad must 
resubmit its program with the required revisions within 30 days of such 
notice. Failure to resubmit the program with the necessary revisions 
will be considered a failure to implement a program under this subpart.
    (d) Implementation. (1) No later than 45 days prior to commencement 
of random testing, the railroad must publish to each of its covered 
employees, individually, a written notice that he or she will be subject 
to random drug testing under this part. Such notice must state the date 
for commencement of the program, must state that the selection of 
employees for testing will be on a strictly random basis, must describe 
the consequences of a determination that the employee has violated 
Sec. 219.102 or any applicable railroad rule, and must inform the 
employee of the employee's rights under subpart E of this part. A copy 
of the notice must be provided to each new covered employee on or before 
the employee's initial date of service. Since knowledge of Federal law 
is presumed, nothing in this paragraph (d)(1) creates a defense to a 
violation of Sec. 219.102.
    (2) A railroad commencing operations must submit a random testing 
program 60 days after doing so. The railroad must implement its approved 
random testing program not later than the expiration of 60 days from 
approval by the Administrator.

Sec. 219.602  FRA Administrator's determination of random drug testing 
          rate.

    (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this 
section, the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing must 
be 50 percent of covered employees.
    (b) The FRA Administrator's decision to increase or decrease the 
minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing is based on the 
reported positive rate for the entire industry. All information used for 
this determination is drawn from the drug MIS reports required by this 
part. In order to ensure reliability of the data, the Administrator 
considers the quality and completeness of the reported data, may obtain 
additional information or reports from railroads, and may make 
appropriate modifications in calculating the industry positive rate. 
Each year, the Administrator will publish in the Federal Register the 
minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing of covered 
employees. The new minimum annual percentage rate for random drug 
testing will be applicable starting January 1 of the calendar year 
following publication.
    (c) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing 
is 50 percent, the Administrator may lower this rate to 25 percent of 
all covered employees if the Administrator determines that the data 
received

[[Page 232]]

under the reporting requirements of Sec. 219.803 for two consecutive 
calendar years indicate that the reported positive rate is less than 1.0 
percent.
    (d) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing 
is 25 percent, and the data received under the reporting requirements of 
Sec. 219.803 for any calendar year indicate that the reported positive 
rate is equal to or greater than 1.0 percent, the Administrator will 
increase the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing to 
50 percent of all covered employees.
    (e) Selection of covered employees for testing must be made by a 
method employing objective, neutral criteria which ensures that every 
covered employee has a substantially equal statistical chance of being 
selected within a specified time frame. The method may not permit 
subjective factors to play a role in selection, i.e., no employee may be 
selected as a result of the exercise of discretion by the railroad. The 
selection method must be capable of verification with respect to the 
randomness of the selection process.
    (f) The railroad must randomly select a sufficient number of covered 
employees for testing during each calendar year to equal an annual rate 
not less than the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing 
determined by the Administrator. If the railroad conducts random drug 
testing through a consortium, the number of employees to be tested may 
be calculated for each individual railroad or may be based on the total 
number of covered employees covered by the consortium who are subject to 
random drug testing at the same minimum annual percentage rate under 
this part or any DOT agency drug testing rule.
    (g) Each railroad must ensure that random drug tests conducted under 
this part are unannounced and that the dates for administering random 
tests are spread reasonably throughout the calendar year.
    (h) If a given covered employee is subject to random drug testing 
under the drug testing rules of more than one DOT agency for the same 
railroad, the employee must be subject to random drug testing at the 
percentage rate established for the calendar year by the DOT agency 
regulating more than 50 percent of the employee's function.
    (i) If a railroad is required to conduct random drug testing under 
the drug testing rules of more than one DOT agency, the railroad may--
    (1) Establish separate pools for random selection, with each pool 
containing the covered employees who are subject to testing at the same 
required rate; or
    (2) Randomly select such employees for testing at the highest 
percentage rate established for the calendar year by any DOT agency to 
which the railroad is subject.

Sec. 219.603  Participation in drug testing.

    A railroad shall, under the conditions specified in this subpart and 
subpart H of this part, require a covered employee selected through the 
random testing program to cooperate in urine testing to determine 
compliance with Sec. 219.102, and the employee must provide the required 
specimen and complete the required paperwork and certifications. 
Compliance by the employee may be excused only in the case of a 
documented medical or family emergency.

Sec. 219.605  Positive drug test results; procedures.

    (a) [Reserved]
    (b) Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the 
event a specimen provided under this subpart is reported as positive by 
the MRO are set forth in Sec. 219.104. The responsive action required in 
Sec. 219.104 is not stayed pending the result of a retest or split 
specimen test.

Sec. 219.607  Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA approval a random alcohol 
testing program meeting the requirements of this subpart. A railroad 
commencing operations must submit a random alcohol testing program not 
later than 30 days prior to such commencement. The program must be 
submitted to the Associate Administrator for Safety, FRA, for review and 
approval. If, after approval, a railroad desires to amend the random 
alcohol testing program implemented under this subpart, the railroad

[[Page 233]]

must file with FRA a notice of such amendment at least 30 days prior to 
the intended effective date of such action. A program responsive to the 
requirements of this section or any amendment to the program may not be 
implemented prior to approval.
    (b) Form of programs. Random alcohol testing programs submitted by 
or on behalf of each railroad under this subpart must meet the following 
criteria, and the railroad and its managers, supervisors, officials and 
other employees and agents must conform to such criteria in implementing 
the program:
    (1) Selection of covered employees for testing must be made by a 
method employing objective, neutral criteria which ensures that every 
covered employee has a substantially equal statistical chance of being 
selected within a specified time frame. The method may not permit 
subjective factors to play a role in selection, i.e., no employee may be 
selected as the result of the exercise of discretion by the railroad. 
The selection method must be capable of verification with respect to the 
randomness of the selection process, and any records necessary to 
document random selection must be retained for not less than 24 months 
from the date upon which the particular specimens were collected.
    (2) The program must include testing procedures and safeguards, and, 
consistent with this part, procedures for action based on tests where 
the employee is found to have violated Sec. 219.101.
    (3) The program must ensure that random alcohol tests conducted 
under this part are unannounced and that the dates for administering 
random tests are spread reasonably throughout the calendar year.
    (4) The program must ensure to the maximum extent practicable that 
each covered employee perceives the possibility that a random alcohol 
test may be required at any time the employee reports for work and at 
any time during the duty tour (except any period when the employee is 
expressly relieved of any responsibility for performance of covered 
service).
    (5) An employee may be subject to testing only while on duty. Only 
employees who perform covered service for the railroad may be subject to 
testing under this part. In the case of employees who during some duty 
tours perform covered service and during others do not, the railroad 
program may specify the extent to which, and the circumstances under 
which they are subject to testing. To the extent practical within the 
limitations of this part and in the context of the railroad's 
operations, the railroad program must provide that employees are subject 
to the possibility of random testing on any day they actually perform 
covered service.
    (6) Testing must be conducted promptly, as provided in 
Sec. 219.701(b)(1).
    (7) Each time an employee is notified for random alcohol testing the 
employee must be informed that selection was made on a random basis.
    (8) Each railroad must ensure that each covered employee who is 
notified of selection for random alcohol testing proceeds to the test 
site immediately; provided, however, that if the employee is performing 
a safety-sensitive function at the time of the notification, the 
railroad must instead ensure that the employee ceases to perform the 
safety-sensitive function and proceeds to the testing site as soon as 
possible.
    (c) Implementation. (1) No later than 45 days prior to commencement 
of random alcohol testing, the railroad must publish to each of its 
covered employees, individually, a written notice that the employee will 
be subject to random alcohol testing under this part. Such notice must 
state the date for commencement of the program, must state that the 
selection of employees for testing will be on a strictly random basis, 
must describe the consequences of a determination that the employee has 
violated Sec. 219.101 or any applicable railroad rule, and must inform 
the employee of the employee's rights under subpart E of this part. A 
copy of the notice must be provided to each new covered employee on or 
before the employee's initial date of service. Since knowledge of 
Federal law is presumed, nothing in this paragraph (c)(1) creates a 
defense to a violation of Sec. 219.101. This notice may be combined with 
the notice or policy statement required by Sec. 219.23.

[[Page 234]]

    (2) A railroad commencing operations must submit a random testing 
program 60 days after doing so. The railroad must implement its approved 
random testing program not later than the expiration of 60 days from 
approval by the Administrator.

Sec. 219.608  FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol 
          testing rate.

    (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this 
section, the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing 
must be 25 percent of covered employees.
    (b) The Administrator's decision to increase or decrease the minimum 
annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing is based on the 
violation rate for the entire industry. All information used for the 
determination is drawn from the alcohol MIS reports required by this 
part. In order to ensure reliability of the data, the Administrator 
considers the quality and completeness of the reported data, may obtain 
additional information or reports from employers, and may make 
appropriate modifications in calculating the industry violation rate. 
Each year, the Administrator will publish in the Federal Register the 
minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing of covered 
employees. The new minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol 
testing will be applicable starting January 1 of the calendar year 
following publication.
    (c)(1) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol 
testing is 25 percent or more, the Administrator may lower this rate to 
10 percent of all covered employees if the Administrator determines that 
the data received under the reporting requirements of Sec. 219.801 for 
two consecutive calendar years indicate that the violation rate is less 
than 0.5 percent.
    (2) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol 
testing is 50 percent, the Administrator may lower this rate to 25 
percent of all covered employees if the Administrator determines that 
the data received under the reporting requirements of Sec. 219.801 for 
two consecutive calendar years indicate that the violation rate is less 
than 1.0 percent but equal to or greater than 0.5 percent.
    (d)(1) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol 
testing is 10 percent, and the data received under the reporting 
requirements of Sec. 219.801 for that calendar year indicate that the 
violation rate is equal to or greater than 0.5 percent, but less than 
1.0 percent, the Administrator will increase the minimum annual 
percentage rate for random alcohol testing to 25 percent of all covered 
employees.
    (2) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol 
testing is 25 percent or less, and the data received under the reporting 
requirements of Sec. 219.801 for any calendar year indicate that the 
violation rate is equal to or greater than 1.0 percent, the 
Administrator will increase the minimum annual percentage rate for 
random alcohol testing to 50 percent of all covered employees.
    (e) The railroad must randomly select and test a sufficient number 
of covered employees for testing during each calendar year to equal an 
annual rate not less than the minimum annual percentage rate for random 
alcohol testing determined by the Administrator. If the railroad 
conducts random alcohol testing through a consortium, the number of 
employees to be tested may be calculated for each individual employer or 
may be based on the total number of covered employees covered by the 
consortium who are subject to random testing at the same minimum annual 
percentage rate under this part or any DOT agency alcohol testing rule.
    (f) If a railroad is required to conduct random alcohol testing 
under the alcohol testing rules of more than one DOT agency, the 
railroad may--
    (1) Establish separate pools for random selection, with each pool 
containing the covered employees who are subject to testing at the same 
required rate; or
    (2) Randomly select such employees for testing at the highest 
percentage rate established for the calendar year by any DOT agency to 
which the railroad is subject.

[[Page 235]]

Sec. 219.609  Participation in alcohol testing.

    A railroad must, under the conditions specified in this subpart and 
subpart H of this part, require a covered employee selected through the 
random testing program to cooperate in breath testing to determine 
compliance with Sec. 219.101, and the employee must provide the required 
breath and complete the required paperwork and certifications. 
Compliance by the employee may be excused only in the case of a 
documented medical or family emergency.

Sec. 219.611  Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; 
          procedures.

    Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event 
an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of 
.04 or greater are set forth in Sec. 219.104.

             Subpart H--Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures

Sec. 219.701  Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts B, D, F, and G 
of this part must be conducted in compliance with all applicable 
provisions of the Department of Transportation Procedures for 
Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs (part 40 of 
this title).
    (b) Alcohol testing required or authorized by subparts B, D, F, and 
G of this part must be conducted in compliance with all applicable 
provisions of the Department of Transportation Procedures for 
Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs (part 40 of 
this title).
    (c) Each covered employee who is notified of selection for testing 
and who is not performing covered service at the time of notification 
must proceed to the testing site immediately. The railroad must ensure 
that an employee who is performing covered service at the time of 
notification shall, as soon as possible without affecting safety, cease 
to perform covered service and proceed to the testing site.

                        Subpart I--Annual Report

Sec. 219.801  Reporting alcohol misuse prevention program results in a 
          management information system.

    (a) Each railroad that has 400,000 or more total manhours shall 
submit to FRA by March 15 of each year a report covering the previous 
calendar year (January 1--December 31), summarizing the results of its 
alcohol misuse prevention program.
    (b) A railroad that is subject to more than one DOT agency alcohol 
regulation must identify each employee covered by the regulations of 
more than one DOT agency. The identification will be by the total number 
and category of covered functions. Prior to conducting any alcohol test 
on a covered employee subject to the regulations of more than one DOT 
agency, the railroad must determine which DOT agency regulation or rule 
authorizes or requires the test. The test result information must be 
directed to the appropriate DOT agency or agencies.
    (c) Each railroad must ensure the accuracy and timeliness of each 
report submitted. The report must be submitted on one of the two forms 
specified by the FRA.
    (d) Each report required by this section that contains information 
on an alcohol screening test result of .02 or greater or a violation of 
the alcohol misuse provisions of subpart B of this part must include the 
following elements:
    (1) Number of covered employees by employee category (i.e., train 
service, engine service, dispatcher/operator, signal, other).
    (2) Number of covered employees in each category subject to alcohol 
testing under the alcohol misuse regulation of another DOT agency, 
identified by each agency.
    (3)(i) Number of screening tests by type of test (i.e., pre-
employment and covered service transfer, random, post-positive return to 
service, and follow-up) and employee category.
    (ii) Number of confirmation tests, by type of test and employee 
category.
    (4) Number of confirmation alcohol tests indicating an alcohol 
concentration equal of .02 or greater but less

[[Page 236]]

than .04, by type of test and employee category.
    (5) Number of confirmation alcohol tests indicating an alcohol 
concentration of .04 or greater, by type of test and employee category.
    (6) Number of persons denied a position as a covered employee 
following a pre-employment alcohol test indicating an alcohol 
concentration of .04 or greater.
    (7) Number of covered employees with a confirmation alcohol test 
indicating an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater, or who have 
violations of other alcohol misuse provisions, who were returned to 
service in covered positions (having complied with the recommendations 
of a substance abuse professional as described in Sec. 219.104(d)).
    (8) For cause breath alcohol testing under railroad authority, by 
reason for test (accident/injury or rules violation), the number of 
screening tests conducted, the number of confirmation tests conducted, 
the number of confirmation tests of .02 or greater but less than .04, 
and the number of confirmation test results of .04 or greater.
    (9) For cause breath alcohol testing under FRA authority, by reason 
for test (reasonable suspicion, accident/injury or rules violation), the 
number of screening tests conducted, the number of confirmation tests 
conducted, the number of confirmation tests of .02 or greater but less 
than .04, and the number of confirmation test results of .04 or greater.
    (10) Number of covered employees who were found to have violated 
other provisions of subpart B of this part, and the action taken in 
response to the violation.
    (11) Number of covered employees who were administered alcohol and 
drug tests at the same time, with both a positive drug test result and 
an alcohol test result indicating an alcohol concentration of .04 or 
greater.
    (12) Number of covered employees who refused to submit to a random 
alcohol test required under this part.
    (13) Number of covered employees who refused to submit to a non-
random alcohol test required under this part.
    (14) Number of supervisory personnel who have received the required 
initial training on the specific contemporaneous physical, behavioral, 
and performance indicators of probable alcohol use during the reporting 
period.
    (e) Each report required by this section that contains information 
on neither a screening test result of 0.02 or greater nor a violation of 
the alcohol misuse provisions of subpart B of this part must include the 
following informational elements:
    (1) Number of covered employees by employee category (i.e., train 
service, engine service, dispatcher/operator, signal, other).
    (2) Number of covered employees in each category subject to alcohol 
testing under the alcohol misuse regulation of another DOT agency, 
identified by each agency.
    (3) Number of screening tests by type of test (i.e., pre-employment 
and covered service transfer, random, post-positive return to service, 
and follow-up) and employee category.
    (4) Number of covered employees with a confirmation alcohol test 
indicating an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater, or who have 
violations of other alcohol misuse provisions, who were returned to 
service in covered positions (having complied with the recommendations 
of a substance abuse professional as described in Sec. 219.104(d)).
    (5) For cause breath alcohol testing under railroad authority, by 
reason for test (accident/injury or rules violation), the number of 
screening tests conducted.
    (6) For cause breath alcohol testing under FRA authority, by reason 
for test (reasonable suspicion, accident/injury or rules violation), the 
number of screening tests conducted.
    (7) Number of covered employees who refused to submit to a random 
alcohol test required under this part.
    (8) Number of covered employees who refused to submit to a non-
random alcohol test required under this part.
    (9) Number of supervisory personnel who have received the required 
initial training on the specific contemporaneous physical, behavioral, 
and performance indicators of probable alcohol use during the reporting 
period.

[[Page 237]]

Sec. 219.803  Reporting drug misuse prevention program results in a 
          management information system.

    (a) Each railroad that has 400,000 or more total manhours shall 
submit to FRA an annual report covering the calendar year, summarizing 
the results of its drug misuse prevention program.
    (b) A railroad that is subject to more than one DOT agency drug 
regulation must identify each employee covered by the regulations of 
more than one DOT agency. The identification will be by the total number 
and category of covered functions. Prior to conducting any drug test on 
a covered employee subject to the regulations of more than one DOT 
agency, the railroad must determine which DOT agency regulation or rules 
authorizes or requires the test. The test result information must be 
directed to the appropriate DOT agency or agencies.
    (c) Each railroad must ensure the accuracy and timeliness of each 
report submitted by the railroad or a consortium.
    (d) Each railroad must submit the required annual reports no later 
than March 15 of each year. The report must be submitted on one of the 
forms specified by the FRA. A railroad with no positive test result must 
submit the ``Drug Testing Management Information System Zero Positives 
Data Collection Form.'' All other railroads must submit the ``Drug 
Testing Management Information System Data Collection Form.''
    (e) A railroad submitting the ``Drug Testing Management Information 
System Data Collection Form'' must address each of the following data 
elements:
    (1) Number of covered employees by employee category (i.e., train 
service, engine service, dispatcher/operator, signal service, other).
    (2) Number of covered employees in each category subject to testing 
under the anti-drug regulations of more than one DOT agency, identified 
by each agency.
    (3) Number of specimens collected by type of test (i.e., pre-
employment and covered service transfer, random, post-positive return to 
service, and follow-up), and employee category.
    (4) Number of specimens verified negative by a Medical Review 
Officer (MRO) by type of test, and employee category.
    (5) Number of specimens verified positive for one or more of the 
five drugs by a MRO by type of test, employee category, and type of 
drug. If a test has been verified positive by a MRO for multiple drugs, 
the employer should report the result as a positive for each type of 
drug.
    (6) Number of applicants or transfers denied employment or transfer 
to a covered service position following a verified positive pre-
employment drug test.
    (7) Number of employees, currently in or having completed 
rehabilitation or otherwise qualified to return to duty, who have 
returned to work in a covered position during the reporting period.
    (8) For cause drug testing, the number of specimens collected by 
reason for test (i.e., accident/injury, rules violation, or reasonable 
suspicion), type of authority (railroad or FRA), employee category and 
type of drug, including drugs tested for under railroad authority only.
    (9) For cause drug testing, the number of specimens verified 
negative by a MRO by reason for test, type of authority, employee 
category and type of drug, including drugs tested for under railroad 
authority only.
    (10) For cause drug testing, the number of specimens verified 
positive by a MRO by reason for test, type of authority, employee 
category and type of drug, including drugs tested for under railroad 
authority only.
    (11) For cause breath alcohol testing under railroad authority, by 
reason for test, the number of tests conducted, the number of tests with 
a positive result (i.e., breath alcohol concentration (BAC) = or 
<ls-thn-eq> .02), and the number of refusals.
    (12) For cause urine alcohol testing under railroad authority, by 
reason for test, the number of tests conducted, the number of tests with 
a positive result, and the number of refusals.
    (13) For cause breath alcohol testing under FRA authority, by reason 
for test, the number of tests conducted,

[[Page 238]]

the number of tests with a positive result, and the number of refusals.
    (14) Total number of covered employees observed in documented 
operational tests and inspections related to enforcement of the 
railroad's rules on alcohol and drug use.
    (15) Based on the tests and inspections described in paragraph 
(e)(14) of this section, the number of covered employees charged with a 
violation of the railroad's Rule G or similar rule or policy on drugs.
    (16) Based on the tests and inspections described in paragraph 
(e)(14) of this section, the number of covered employees charged with a 
violation of the railroad's Rule G or similar rule or policy on alcohol.
    (17) Number of specimens verified positive for more than one drug, 
by employee category and type of drug.
    (18) Number of covered employees who refused to submit to a random 
drug test required under FRA authority.
    (19) Number of covered employees who refused to submit to a non-
random drug test required under FRA authority.
    (20) Number of supervisory personnel who have received the required 
initial training on the specific contemporaneous physical, behavioral, 
and performance indicators of probable drug use during the reporting 
period.
    (f) A railroad authorized to submit the ``Drug Testing Management 
Information System Zero Positives Data Collection Form'' must address 
each of the following data elements:
    (1) Number of covered employees by employee category (i.e., train 
service, engine service, dispatcher/operator, signal service, other).
    (2) Number of covered employees in each category subject to testing 
under the anti-drug regulations of more than one DOT agency, identified 
by each agency.
    (3) Number of specimens collected and verified negative by type of 
test (i.e., pre-employment and covered service transfer, random, for 
cause due to accident/incident, for cause due to rules violation, 
reasonable suspicion, post-positive return to service, and follow-up), 
and employee category.
    (4) For cause breath alcohol testing under railroad authority, the 
number of tests conducted by reason for test (i.e., accident/injury, 
rules violation, or reasonable suspicion).
    (5) For cause urine alcohol testing under railroad authority, the 
number of tests conducted by reason for test.
    (6) For cause breath alcohol testing under FRA authority, the number 
of tests conducted by reason for test.
    (7) Total number of covered employees observed in documented 
operational tests and inspections related to enforcement of the 
railroad's rules on alcohol and drug use.
    (8) Based on the tests and inspections described in paragraph (f)(7) 
of this section, the number of covered employees charged with a 
violation of the railroad's Rule G or similar rule or policy on drugs.
    (9) Based on the tests and inspections described in paragraph (f)(7) 
of this section, the number of covered employees charged with a 
violation of the railroad's Rule G or similar rule or policy on alcohol.
    (10) Number of covered employees who refused to submit to a random 
drug test required under FRA authority.
    (11) Number of covered employees who refused to submit to a non-
random drug test required under FRA authority.
    (12) Number of supervisory personnel who have received the required 
initial training on the specific contemporaneous physical, behavioral, 
and performance indicators of probable drug use during the reporting 
period.

                  Subpart J--Recordkeeping Requirements

Sec. 219.901  Retention of alcohol testing records.

    (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to be 
kept by part 40 of this title, each railroad must maintain alcohol 
misuse prevention program records in a secure location with controlled 
access as set out in this section.
    (b) Each railroad must maintain the following records for a minimum 
of five years:

[[Page 239]]

    (1) A summary record of each covered employee's test results; and
    (2) A copy of the annual report summarizing the results of its 
alcohol misuse prevention program (if required to submit the report 
under Sec. 219.801(a)).
    (c) Each railroad must maintain the following records for a minimum 
of two years:
    (1) Records related to the collection process:
    (i) Collection logbooks, if used.
    (ii) Documents relating to the random selection process.
    (iii) Documents generated in connection with decisions to administer 
reasonable suspicion alcohol tests.
    (iv) Documents generated in connection with decisions on post-
accident testing.
    (v) Documents verifying the existence of a medical explanation of 
the inability of a covered employee to provide an adequate specimen.
    (2) Records related to test results:
    (i) The railroad's copy of the alcohol test form, including the 
results of the test.
    (ii) Documents related to the refusal of any covered employee to 
submit to an alcohol test required by this part.
    (iii) Documents presented by a covered employee to dispute the 
result of an alcohol test administered under this part.
    (3) Records related to other violations of this part.
    (4) Records related to employee training:
    (i) Materials on alcohol abuse awareness, including a copy of the 
railroad's policy on alcohol abuse.
    (ii) Documentation of compliance with the requirements of 
Sec. 219.23.
    (iii) Documentation of training provided to supervisors for the 
purpose of qualifying the supervisors to make a determination concerning 
the need for alcohol testing based on reasonable suspicion.
    (iv) Certification that any training conducted under this part 
complies with the requirements for such training.

Sec. 219.903  Retention of drug testing records.

    (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to be 
kept by part 40 of this title, each railroad must maintain drug abuse 
prevention program records in a secure location with controlled access 
as set forth in this section.
    (b) (1) Each railroad must maintain the following records for a 
minimum of five years:
    (i) A summary record of each covered employee's test results; and
    (ii) A copy of the annual report summarizing the results of its drug 
misuse prevention program (if required to submit under Sec. 219.803(a)).
    (2) Each railroad must maintain the following records for a minimum 
of two years.
    (c) Types of records. The following specific records must be 
maintained:
    (1) Records related to the collection process:
    (i) Documents relating to the random selection process.
    (ii) Documents generated in connection with decisions to administer 
reasonable suspicion drug tests.
    (iii) Documents generated in connection with decisions on post-
accident testing.
    (iv) Documents verifying the existence of a medical explanation of 
the inability of a covered employee to provide a specimen.
    (2) Records related to test results:
    (i) The railroad's copy of the drug test custody and control form, 
including the results of the test.
    (ii) Documents presented by a covered employee to dispute the result 
of a drug test administered under this part.
    (3) Records related to other violations of this part.
    (4) Records related to employee training:
    (i) Materials on drug abuse awareness, including a copy of the 
railroad's policy on drug abuse.
    (ii) Documentation of compliance with the requirements of 
Sec. 219.23.
    (iii) Documentation of training provided to supervisors for the 
purpose of qualifying the supervisors to make a determination concerning 
the need for alcohol testing based on reasonable suspicion.
    (iv) Certification that any training conducted under this part 
complies

[[Page 240]]

with the requirements for such training.

Sec. 219.905  Access to facilities and records.

    (a) Release of covered employee information contained in records 
required to be maintained under Secs. 219.901 and 219.903 must be in 
accordance with part 40 of this title and with this section. (For 
purposes of this section only, urine drug testing records are considered 
equivalent to breath alcohol testing records.)
    (b) Each railroad must permit access to all facilities utilized in 
complying with the requirements of this part to the Secretary of 
Transportation, United States Department of Transportation, or any DOT 
agency with regulatory authority over the railroad or any of its covered 
employees.
    (c) Each railroad must make available copies of all results for 
railroad alcohol and drug testing programs conducted under this part and 
any other information pertaining to the railroad's alcohol and drug 
misuse prevention program, when requested by the Secretary of 
Transportation or any DOT agency with regulatory authority over the 
railroad or covered employee.

           Appendix A to Part 219--Schedule of Civil Penalties

    The following chart lists the schedule of civil penalties:

                          Penalty Schedule \1\
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                              Willful
               Section \2\                   Violation       violation
------------------------------------------------------------------------
           Subpart A--General

219.3 Application:
    Railroad does not have required               $5,000          $7,500
     program............................
219.11 General conditions for chemical
 tests:
    (b)(1) Employee unlawfully refuses             2,500           5,000
     to participate in testing..........
    (b)(2) Employer fails to give                  3,000           8,000
     priority to medical treatment......
    (b)(3) Employee fails to remain                2,500           5,000
     available..........................
    (b)(4) Employee tampers with                   2,500           5,000
     specimen...........................
    (d) Employee unlawfully required to            2,500           5,000
     execute a waiver of rights.........
    (e) Railroad used or authorized the   ..............           7,500
     use of coercion to obtain specimens
    (g) Failure to meet supervisory                2,500           5,000
     training requirements or program of
     instruction not available or
     program not complete...............
    (h) Urine or blood specimens                   2,500           5,000
     provided for Federal testing were
     used for non-authorized testing....
219.23 Railroad policies:
    (a) Failure to provide written                 1,000           4,000
     notice of FRA test.................
    (b) Failure to provide written                 1,000           4,000
     notice of basis for FRA test.......
    (c) Use of Subpart C form for other            1,000           4,000
     test...............................
    (d) Failure to provide educational             1,000           4,000
     materials..........................
    (e) Educational materials fail to              1,000           4,000
     explain requirements of this part
     and/or include required content....
    (f) Non-Federal provisions are                 1,000           4,000
     clearly described as independent
     authority..........................

         Subpart B--Prohibitions

219.101 Alcohol and drug use prohibited:
    Employee violates prohibition(s)....          10,000  ..............
219.103 Prescribed and over-the-counter
 drugs:
    (a) Failure to train employee                  2,500           5,000
     properly on requirements...........
219.104 Responsive action:
    (a) Failure to remove employee from            3,000           8,000
     covered service immediately........
    (b) Failure to provide notice for              1,000           4,000
     removal............................
    (c) Failure to provide prompt                  2,000           7,000
     hearing............................
    (d) Employee improperly returned to            2,000           7,000
     service............................
219.105 Railroad's duty to prevent
 violations:
    (a) Employee improperly permitted to           7,000          10,000
     remain in covered service..........
    (b) Failure to exercise due                    2,500           5,000
     diligence to assure compliance with
     prohibition........................
219.107 Consequences of unlawful
 refusal:
    (a) Failure to disqualify an                   5,000           7,500
     employee for nine months following
     a refusal..........................
    (e) Employee unlawfully returned to            5,000           7,500
     service............................

 Subpart C--Post-Accident Toxicological
                 Testing

219.201 Events for which testing is
 required:
    (a) Failure to test after qualifying           5,000           7,500
     event (each employee not tested is
     a violation).......................
    (c)(1)(i) Failure to make good faith           2,500           5,000
     determination......................
    (c)(1)(ii) Failure to provide                  1,000           3,000
     requested decision report to FRA...
    (c)(2) Testing performed after non-            5,000          10,000
     qualifying event...................
219.203 Responsibilities of railroads
 and employees:
    (a)(1)(i) and (a)(2)(i) Failure to             2,500           5,000
     properly test/exclude from testing.

[[Page 241]]


    (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(2)(ii) Non-                 2,500           5,000
     covered service employee tested....
    (b)(1) Delay in obtaining specimens            2,500           5,000
     due to failure to make every
     reasonable effort..................
    (c) Independent medical facility not           2,500           5,000
     utilized...........................
    (d) Failure to report event or                 1,000           3,000
     contact FRA when intervention
     required...........................
219.205 Specimen collection and
 handling:
    (a) Failure to observe requirements            2,500           5,000
     with respect to specimen
     collection, marking and handling...
    (b) Failure to provide properly                2,500           5,000
     prepared forms with specimens......
    (d) Failure to promptly or properly            2,500           5,000
     forward specimens..................
219.207 Fatality:
    (a) Failure to test.................           5,000           7,500
    (a)(1) Failure to ensure timely                2,500           5,000
     collection and shipment of required
     specimens..........................
    (b) Failure to request assistance              2,500           5,000
     when necessary.....................
219.209 Reports of tests and refusals:
    (a)(1) Failure to provide telephonic           1,000           2,000
     report.............................
    (b) Failure to provide written                 1,000           2,000
     report of refusal to test..........
    (c) Failure to maintain report                 1,000           2,000
     explaining why test not conducted
     within 4 hours.....................
219.211 Analysis and follow-up:
    (c) Failure of MRO to report review            2,500           5,000
     of positive results to FRA.........

      Subpart D--Testing for Cause

219.300 Mandatory reasonable suspicion
 testing:
    (a)(1) Failure to test when                    5,000           7,500
     reasonable suspicion criteria met..
    (a)(2) Tested when reasonable                  5,000           7,500
     suspicion criteria not met.........
219.301 Testing for reasonable cause:
    (a) Event did not occur during daily           2,500           5,000
     tour...............................
    (b)(2) Tested when accident/incident           5,000           7,500
     criteria not met...................
    (b)(3) Tested when operating rules             5,000           7,500
     violation criteria not met.........
219.302 Prompt specimen collection:
    (a) Specimen collection not                    2,500           5,000
     conducted promptly.................

  Subpart E--Identification of Troubled
                Employees

219.401 Requirement for policies:
    (b) Failure to publish and/or                  2,500           5,000
     implement required policy..........
219.407 Alternate policies:
    (c) Failure to file agreement or               2,500           5,000
     other document or provide timely
     notice or revocation...............

     Subpart F--Pre-Employment Tests

219.501 Pre-employment tests:
    (a) Failure to perform pre-                    2,500           5,000
     employment drug test before first
     time employee performs covered
     service............................

   Subpart G--Random Testing Programs

219.601 Railroad random drug programs:
    (a)(1) Failure to file a random                2,500           5,000
     program............................
    (a)(2) Failure to file amendment to            2,500           5,000
     program............................
    (b) Failure to meet random testing             2,500           5,000
     criteria...........................
    (b)(1)(i) Failure to use a neutral             2,500           5,000
     selection process..................
    (b)(2)(i)(B) Testing not spread                2,500           5,000
     throughout the year................
    (b)(3) Testing not distributed                 2,500           5,000
     throughout the day.................
    (b)(4) Advance notice provided to              2,500           5,000
     employee...........................
    (b)(6) Testing when employee not on            2,500           5,000
     duty...............................
219.601A Failure to include covered                2,500           5,000
 service employee in pool...............
219.602 Administrator's determination of
 drug testing rate:
    (f) Total number of tests below                2,500           5,000
     minimum random drug testing rate...
219.603 Participation in drug testing:
    Failure to document reason for not             2,500           5,000
     testing selected employee..........
219.607 Railroad random alcohol
 programs:
    (a)(1) Failure to file a random                2,500           5,000
     alcohol program....................
    (a)(2) Failure to file amendment to            2,500           5,000
     program............................
    (b) Failure to meet random testing             2,500           5,000
     criteria...........................
    (b)(1) Failure to use a neutral                2,500           5,000
     selection process..................
    (b)(5) Testing when employee not on            2,500           5,000
     duty...............................
    (b)(8) Advance notice provided to              2,500           5,000
     employee...........................
219.607A Failure to include covered                2,500           5,000
 service employee in pool...............
219.608 Administrator's determination of
 random alcohol testing rate:
    (e) Total number of tests below                2,500           5,000
     minimum random alcohol testing rate
219.609 Participation in alcohol
 testing:
    Failure to document reason for not             2,500           5,000
     testing selected employee..........

   Subpart H--Drug and Alcohol Testing
               Procedures

219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol
 testing:
    (a) Failure to comply with Part 40            -5,000          -7,500
     procedures in Subpart B, D, F, or G
     testing............................
    (b) Testing not performed in a                 2,500           5,000
     timely manner......................


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        Subpart I--Annual Report

219.801 Reporting alcohol misuse
 prevention program results in a
 management information system:
    (a) Failure to submit MIS report on            2,500           5,000
     time...............................
    (c) Failure to submit accurate MIS             2,500           5,000
     report.............................
    (d) Failure to include required data           2,500           5,000
219.803 Reporting drug misuse prevention
 program results in a management
 information system:
    (c) Failure to submit accurate MIS             2,500           5,000
     report.............................
    (d) Failure to submit MIS report on            2,500           5,000
     report.............................
    (e) Failure to include required data           2,500           5,000

  Subpart J--Recordkeeping Requirements

219.901 Retention of Alcohol Testing
 Records:
    (a) Failure to maintain records                2,500           5,000
     required to be kept by Part 40.....
    (b) Failure to maintain records                2,500           5,000
     required to be kept for five years.
    (c) Failure to maintain records                2,500           5,000
     required to be kept for two years..
219.903 Retention of Drug Testing
 Records:
    (a) Failure to maintain records                2,500           5,000
     required to be kept by Part 40.....
    (b) Failure to maintain records                2,500           5,000
     required to be kept for five years.
    (c) Failure to maintain records                2,500           5,000
     required to be kept for two years..
219.905 Access to facilities and
 records:
    (a) Failure to release records in              2,500           5,000
     this subpart in accordance with
     Part 40............................
    (b) Failure to permit access to                2,500           5,000
     facilities.........................
    (c) Failure to provide access to               2,500           5,000
     results of railroad alcohol and
     drug testing programs..............
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ A penalty may be assessed against an individual only for a willful
  violation. The FRA Administrator reserves the right to assess a
  penalty of up to $22,000 for any violation, including ones not listed
  in this penalty schedule, where circumstances warrant. See 49 CFR Part
  209, appendix A.
\2\ The penalty schedule uses section numbers from 49 CFR Part 219; and
  if more than one item is listed as a type of violation of a given
  section, each item is also designated by a ``penalty code'' (e.g.,
  ``A''), which is used to facilitate assessment of civil penalties. For
  convenience, penalty citations will cite the CFR section and the
  penalty code, if any (e.g., ``Sec. 219.11A'') FRA reserves the right,
  should litigation become necessary, to substitute in its complaint the
  CFR citation in place of the combined CFR and penalty code citation.

  Appendix B to Part 219--Designation of Laboratory for Post-Accident 
                          Toxicological Testing

    The following laboratory is currently designated to conduct post-
accident toxicological analysis under Subpart C of this part: NWT Inc., 
1141 E. 3900 South, Suite A-110, Salt Lake City, UT 84124, Telephone: 
(801) 268-2431 (Day), (801) 483-3383 (Night/Weekend).

    Appendix C to Part 219--Post-Accident Testing Specimen Collection

    1.0 General.
    This appendix prescribes procedures for collection of specimens for 
mandatory post-accident testing pursuant to Subpart C of this part. 
Collection of blood and urine specimens is required to be conducted at 
an independent medical facility.

(Surviving Employees)

    2.0 Surviving Employees.
    This unit provides detailed procedures for collecting post-accident 
toxicological specimens from surviving employees involved in train 
accidents and train incidents, as required by Subpart C of this part. 
Subpart C specifies qualifying events and employees required to be 
tested.
    2.1 Collection Procedures; General.
    a. All forms and supplies necessary for collection and transfer of 
blood and urine specimens for three surviving employees can be found in 
the FRA post-accident shipping box, which is made available to the 
collection site by the railroad representative.
    b. Each shipping box contains supplies for blood/urine collections 
from three individuals, including instructions and necessary forms. The 
railroad is responsible for ensuring that materials are fresh, complete 
and meet FRA requirements.
    2.1.1 Responsibility of the Railroad Representative.
    a. In the event of an accident/incident for which testing is 
required under Subpart C of this part, the railroad representative shall 
follow the designated set of instructions, and, upon arrival at the 
independent medical facility, promptly present to the collection 
facility representative a post-accident shipping box or boxes with all 
remaining sets of instructions. (Each box contains supplies to collect 
specimens from three employees.) The railroad representative shall 
request the collection facility representative to review the 
instructions provided and, through qualified personnel, provide for 
collection of the specimens according to the procedures set out.

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    b. The railroad representative shall undertake the following 
additional responsibilities--
    1. Complete Form FRA 6180.73 (revised), Accident Information 
Required for Post-Accident Toxicological Testing (49 CFR Part 219), 
describing the testing event and identifying the employees whose 
specimens are to be deposited in the shipping box.
    2. As necessary to verify the identity of individual employees, 
affirm the identity of each employee to the medical facility personnel.
    3. Consistent with the policy of the collection facility, monitor 
the progress of the collection procedure.
    Warning: Monitor but do not directly observe urination or otherwise 
disturb the privacy of urine or blood collection. Do not handle specimen 
containers, bottles or tubes (empty or full). Do not become part of the 
collection process.
    2.1.2 Employee Responsibility.
    a. An employee who is identified for post-accident toxicological 
testing shall cooperate in testing as required by the railroad and 
personnel of the independent medical facility. Such cooperation will 
normally consist of the following, to be performed as requested:
    1. Provide a blood specimen, which a qualified medical professional 
or technician will draw using a single-use sterile syringe. The employee 
should be seated for this procedure.
    2. Provide, in the privacy of an enclosure, a urine specimen into a 
plastic collection cup. Deliver the cup to the collector.
    3. Do not let the blood and urine specimens that you provided leave 
your sight until they have been properly sealed and initialed by you.
    4. Certify the statement in Step 4 of the Post-Accident Testing 
Blood/Urine Custody and Control Form (49 CFR 219) (Form FRA F 6180.74 
(revised)).
    5. If required by the medical facility, complete a separate consent 
form for taking of the specimens and their release to FRA for analysis 
under the FRA rule.
    Note: The employee may not be required to complete any form that 
contains any waiver of rights the employee may have in the employment 
relationship or that releases or holds harmless the medical facility 
with respect to negligence in the collection.
    2.2 The Collection.
    Exhibit C-1 contains instructions for collection of specimens for 
post-accident toxicology from surviving employees. These instructions 
shall be observed for each collection. Instructions are also contained 
in each post-accident shipping box and shall be provided to collection 
facility personnel involved in the collection and/or packaging of 
specimens for shipment.
(Post Mortem Collection)

    3.0 Fatality.
    This unit provides procedures for collecting post-accident body 
fluid/tissue specimens from the remains of employees killed in train 
accidents and train incidents, as required by Subpart C of this part. 
Subpart C specifies qualifying events and employees required to be 
tested.
    3.1 Collection.
    In the event of a fatality for which testing is required under 
Subpart C of this part, the railroad shall promptly make available to 
the custodian of the remains a post-accident shipping box. The railroad 
representative shall request the custodian to review the instructions 
contained in the shipping box and, through qualified medical personnel, 
to provide the specimens as indicated.

(Surviving Employees and Fatalities)

    4.0 Shipment.
    a. The railroad is responsible for arranging overnight 
transportation of the sealed shipping box containing the specimens. When 
possible without incurring delay, the box should be delivered directly 
from the collection personnel providing the specimens to an overnight 
express service courier. If it becomes necessary for the railroad to 
transport the box from point of collection to point of shipment, then--
    1. Individual kits and the shipping box shall be sealed by 
collection personnel before the box is turned over to the railroad 
representative;
    2. The railroad shall limit the number of persons handling the 
shipping box to the minimum necessary to provide for transportation;
    3. If the shipping box cannot immediately be delivered to the 
express carrier for transportation, it shall be maintained in secure 
temporary storage; and
    4. The railroad representatives handling the box shall document 
chain of custody of the shipping box and shall make available such 
documentation to FRA on request.

 Exhibit C-1--Instructions for Collection of Blood and Urine Specimens: 
              Mandatory Post-Accident Toxicological Testing

                               A. Purpose

    These instructions are for the use of personnel of collection 
facilities conducting collection of blood and urine specimens from 
surviving railroad employees following railroad accidents and casualties 
that qualify for mandatory alcohol/drug testing. The Federal Railroad 
Administration appreciates the participation of medical facilities in 
this important public safety program.

                        B. Prepare for Collection

    a. Railroad employees have consented to provision of specimens for 
analysis by the

[[Page 244]]

Federal Railroad Administration as a condition of employment (49 CFR 
219.11). A private, controlled area should be designated for collection 
of specimens and completion of paperwork.
    b. Only one specimen should be collected at a time, with each 
employee's blood draw or urine collection having the complete attention 
of the collector until the specific specimen has been labeled, sealed 
and documented.
    c. Please remember two critical rules for the collections:
    d. All labeling and sealing must be done in the sight of the donor, 
with the specimen never having left the donor's presence until the 
specimen has been labeled, sealed and initialed by the donor.
    e. Continuous custody and control of blood and urine specimens must 
be maintained and documented on the forms provided. In order to do this, 
it is important for the paperwork and the specimens to stay together.
    f. To the extent practical, blood collection should take priority 
over urine collection. To limit steps in the chain of custody, it is 
best if a single collector handles both collections from a given 
employee.
    g. You will use a single Post-Accident Testing Blood/Urine Custody 
and Control Form (FRA Form 6108.74 (revised)), consisting of six Steps 
to complete the collection for each employee. We will refer to it as the 
Control Form.

                          C. Identify the Donor

    a. The employee donor must provide photo identification to each 
collector, or lacking this, be identified by the railroad 
representative.
    b. The donor should remove all unnecessary outer garments such as 
coats or jackets, but may retain valuables, including a wallet. Donors 
should not be asked to disrobe, unless necessary for a separate physical 
examination required by the attending physician.

                              D. Draw Blood

    a. Assemble the materials for collecting blood from each employee: 
two 10 ml grey-stoppered blood tubes and the Control Form.
    b. Ask the donor to complete STEP 1 on the Control Form.
    c. With the donor seated, draw two (2) 10 ml tubes of blood using 
standard medical procedures (sterile, single-use syringe into evacuated 
gray-top tubes provided). CAUTION: Do not use alcohol or an alcohol-
based swab to cleanse the venipuncture site.
    d. Once both tubes are filled and the site of venipuncture is 
protected, immediately--
    1. Seal and label each tube by placing a numbered blood specimen 
label from the label set on the Control Form over the top of the tube 
and securing it down the sides.
    2. Ask the donor to initial each label. Please check to see that the 
initials match the employee's name and note any discrepancies in the 
``Remarks'' block of the Control Form.
    3. As collector, sign and date each blood tube label at the place 
provided.
    4. Skip to STEP 5 and initiate chain of custody for the blood tubes 
by filling out the first line of the block to show receipt of the blood 
specimens from the donor.
    5. Complete STEP 2 on the form.
    6. Return the blood tubes into the individual kit. Keep the 
paperwork and specimens together. If another collector will be 
collecting the urine specimen from this employee, transfer both the form 
and the individual kit with blood tubes to that person, showing the 
transfer of the blood tubes on the second line of STEP 5 (the chain of 
custody block).

                            E. Collect Urine

    a. The urine collector should assemble at his/her station the 
materials for collecting urine from each employee: one plastic 
collection cup with temperature device affixed enclosed in a heat-seal 
bag (with protective seal intact), two 90 ml urine specimen bottles with 
caps and one biohazard bag (with absorbent) also enclosed in a heat-seal 
bag (with protective seal intact), and the Control Form. Blood specimens 
already collected must remain in the collector's custody and control 
during this procedure.
    b. After requiring the employee to wash his/her hands, the collector 
should escort the employee directly to the urine collection area. To the 
extent practical, all sources of water in the collection area should be 
secured and a bluing agent (provided in the box) placed in any toilet 
bowl, tank, or other standing water.
    c. The employee will be provided a private place in which to void. 
Urination will not be directly observed. If the enclosure contains a 
source of running water that cannot be secured or any material (soap, 
etc.) that could be used to adulterate the specimen, the collector 
should monitor the provision of the specimen from outside the enclosure. 
Any unusual behavior or appearance should be noted in the remarks 
section of the Control Form or on the back of that form.
    d. The collector should then proceed as follows:
    e. Unwrap the collection cup in the employee's presence and hand it 
to the employee (or allow the employee to unwrap it).
    f. Ask the employee to void at least 60 ml into the collection cup 
(at least to the line marked).
    g. Leave the private enclosure.

IF THERE IS A PROBLEM WITH URINATION OR Specimen QUANTITY, SEE THE

[[Page 245]]

``TROUBLE BOX'' AT THE BACK OF THESE INSTRUCTIONS.

    h. Once the void is complete, the employee should exit the private 
enclosure and deliver the specimen to the collector. Both the collector 
and the employee must proceed immediately to the labeling/sealing area, 
with the specimen never leaving the sight of the employee before being 
sealed and labeled.
    i. Upon receipt of the specimen, proceed as follows:
    1. In the full view of the employee, remove the wrapper from the two 
urine specimen bottles. Transfer the urine from the collection cup into 
the specimen bottles (at least 30 ml in bottle A and at least 15 ml in 
bottle B).
    2. As you pour the specimen into the specimen bottles, please 
inspect for any unusual signs indicating possible adulteration or 
dilution. Carefully secure the tops. Note any unusual signs under 
``Remarks'' at STEP 3 of the Control Form.
    3. Within 4 minutes after the void, measure the temperature of the 
urine by reading the strip on the bottle. Mark the result at STEP 3 of 
the Control Form.

IF THERE IS A PROBLEM WITH THE URINE Specimen, SEE THE ``TROUBLE BOX'' 
AT THE BACK OF THESE INSTRUCTIONS.

    4. Remove the urine bottle labels from the Control Form. The labels 
are marked ``A'' and ``B.'' Place each label as marked over the top of 
its corresponding bottle, and secure the label to the sides of the 
bottle.
    5. Ask the donor to initial each label. Please check to see that the 
initials match the employee name and note any discrepancy in the 
``Remarks'' block of STEP 3.
    6. As collector, sign and date each urine label.
    7. Skip to STEP 5 and initiate chain-of-custody by showing receipt 
of the urine specimens from the donor. (If you collected the blood, a 
check under ``urine'' will suffice. If someone else collected the blood, 
first make sure transfer of the blood to you is documented. Then, using 
the next available line, show ``Provide specimens'' under purpose, 
``Donor'' under ``released by,'' check under ``urine'' and place your 
name, signature and date in the space provided.)
    8. Complete the remainder of STEP 3 on the Control Form.
    9. Have the employee complete STEP 4 on the Control Form.
    10. Place the filled urine bottles in the individual employee kit. 
Keep the paperwork and specimens together. If another collector will be 
collecting the blood specimen from this employee, transfer both the form 
and the kit to that person, showing the transfer of the urine specimens 
on the next available line of STEP 5 (the chain of custody block).

                   F. Seal the Individual Employee Kit

    a. The blood and urine specimens have now been collected for this 
employee. The blood/urine specimens will now be sealed into the 
individual employee kit, while all paperwork will be retained for 
further completion. After rechecking to see that each specimen is 
properly labeled and initialed, close the plastic bag to contain any 
leakage in transportation, and apply the kit security seal to the small 
individual kit. As collector, sign and date the kit seal.
    b. Before collecting specimens from the next employee, complete the 
next line on the chain-of-custody block showing release of the blood and 
urine by yourself for the purpose of ``Shipment'' and receipt by the 
courier service or railroad representative that will provide 
transportation of the box, together with the date.

                    G. Complete Treatment Information

    Complete STEP 6 of the Control Form. Mark the box if a breath 
alcohol test was conducted under FRA authority.

                     H. Prepare the Box for Shipment

    a. Sealed individual employee kits should be retained in secure 
storage if there will be a delay in preparation of the shipping box. The 
shipping box shall be prepared and sealed by a collection facility 
representative as follows:
    1. Inspect STEP 5 of each Control Form to ensure chain-of-custody is 
continuous and complete for each fluid (showing specimens released for 
shipment). Retain the medical facility copy of each Control Form and the 
Accident Information form for your records.
    2. Place sealed individual employee kits in the shipping box. Place 
all forms in zip-lock bag and seal securely. Place bag with forms and 
unused supplies in shipping box.
    3. Affix the mailing label provided to the outside of the shipping 
box.

                             I. Ship the Box

    a. The railroad must arrange to have the box shipped overnight air 
express or (if express service is unavailable) by air freight, prepaid, 
to FRA's designated laboratory. Whenever possible without incurring 
delay, the collector should deliver the box directly into the hands of 
the express courier or air freight representative.
    b. Where courier pickup is not immediately available at the 
collection facility where the specimens are taken, the railroad is 
required to transport the shipping box for expeditious shipment by air 
express, air freight or equivalent means.
    c. If the railroad is given custody of the box to arrange shipment, 
please record the name of the railroad official taking custody on the 
copy of Form 6180.73 retained by the collection site.

[[Page 246]]

                             ``TROUBLE BOX''

    1. Problem: The employee claims an inability to urinate, either 
because he/she has recently voided or because of anxiety concerning the 
collection.
    Action: The employee may be offered moderate quantities of liquid to 
assist urination. If the employee continues to claim inability after 4 
hours, the urine collection should be discontinued, but the blood 
specimens should be forwarded and all other procedures followed. Please 
note in area provided for remarks what explanation was provided by the 
employee.
    2. Problem: The employee cannot provide approximately 60 ml. of 
specimen.
    Action: The employee should remain at the collection facility until 
as much as possible of the required amount can be given (up to 4 hours). 
The employee should be offered moderate quantities of liquids to aid 
urination. The first bottle, if it contains any quantity of urine, 
should be sealed and securely stored with the blood tubes and Control 
Form pending shipment. A second bottle should then be used for the 
subsequent void (using a second Control Form with the words ``SECOND 
VOID--FIRST Specimen INSUFFICIENT'' in the remarks block and labels from 
that form). However, if after 4 hours the donor's second void is also 
insufficient or contains no more than the first insufficient void, 
discard the second void and send the first void to the laboratory.
    3. Problem: The urine temperature is outside the normal range of 32 
deg.-38 deg.C/90 deg.-100 deg.F, and a suitable medical explanation 
cannot be provided by an oral temperature or other means; or
    4. Problem: The collector observes conduct clearly and unequivocally 
indicating an attempt to substitute or adulterate the specimen (e.g., 
substitute urine in plain view, blue dye in specimen presented, etc.) 
and a collection site supervisor or the railroad representative agrees 
that the circumstances indicate an attempt to tamper with the specimen.
    Action (for either Problem No. 3 or Problem No. 4): Document the 
problem on the Control Form.
    i. If the collection site supervisor or railroad representative 
concurs that the temperature of the specimen, or other clear and 
unequivocal evidence, indicates a possible attempt to substitute or 
alter the specimen, another void must be taken under direct observation 
by a collector of the same gender.
    ii. If a collector of the same sex is not available, do NOT proceed 
with this step.
    iii. If a collector of the same gender is available, proceed as 
follows: A new Control Form must be initiated for the second void. The 
original suspect specimen should be marked ``Void'' and the follow-up 
void should be marked ``Void 2,'' with both voids being sent to the 
laboratory and the incident clearly detailed on the Control Form.

   Exhibit C-2--Instructions for Collection of Post Mortem Specimens: 
             Employee Killed in a Railroad Accident/Incident

    To the Medical Examiner, Coroner, or Pathologist:
    a. In compliance with Federal safety regulations (49 CFR Part 219), 
a railroad representative has requested that you obtain specimens for 
toxicology from the remains of a railroad employee who was killed in a 
railroad accident or incident. The deceased consented to the taking of 
such specimens, as a matter of Federal law, by performing service on the 
railroad (49 CFR 219.11(f)).
    b. Your assistance is requested in carrying out this program of 
testing, which is important to the protection of the public safety and 
the safety of those who work on the railroads.

                              A. Materials:

    The railroad will provide you a post-accident shipping box that 
contains necessary supplies. If the box is not immediately available, 
please proceed using supplies available to you that are suitable for 
forensic toxicology.

             B. Specimens requested, in order of preference:

    a. Blood--20 milliliters or more. Preferred sites: intact femoral 
vein or artery or peripheral vessels (up to 10 ml, as available) and 
intact heart (20 ml). Deposit blood in gray-stopper tubes individually 
by site and shake to mix specimen and preservative.
    Note: If uncontaminated blood is not available, bloody fluid or 
clots from body cavity may be useful for qualitative purposes; but do 
not label as blood. Please indicate source and identity of specimen on 
label of tube.
    b. Urine--as much as 100 milliliters, if available. Deposit into 
plastic bottles provided.
    c. Vitreous fluid--all available, deposited into smallest available 
tube (e.g., 3 ml) with 1% sodium fluoride, or gray-stopper tube 
(provided). Shake to mix specimen and preservative.
    d. If available at autopsy, organs--50 to 100 grams each of two or 
more of the following in order preference, as available: liver, bile, 
brain, kidney, spleen, and/or lung. Specimens should be individually 
deposited into zip-lock bags or other clean, single use containers 
suitable for forensic specimens.
    e. If vitreous or urine is not available, please provide--
    1. Spinal fluid--all available, in 8 ml container (if available) 
with sodium fluoride or in gray-stopper tube; or, if spinal fluid cannot 
be obtained,

[[Page 247]]

    2. Gastric content--up to 100 milliliters, as available, into 
plastic bottle.

                         C. Specimen collection:

    a. Sampling at time of autopsy is preferred so that percutaneous 
needle puncturing is not necessary. However, if autopsy will not be 
conducted or is delayed, please proceed with sampling.
    b. Blood specimens should be taken by sterile syringe and deposited 
directly into evacuated tube, if possible, to avoid contamination of 
specimen or dissipation of volatiles (ethyl alcohol).
    Note: If only cavity fluid is available, please open cavity to 
collect specimen. Note condition of cavity.
    c. Please use smallest tubes available to accommodate available 
quantity of fluid specimen (with 1% sodium fluoride).

                  D. Specimen identification, sealing:

    a. As each specimen is collected, seal each blood tube and each 
urine bottle using the respective blood tube or urine bottle using the 
identifier labels from the set provided with the Post-Accident Testing 
Blood/Urine Custody and Control Form (49 CFR part 219) (Form FRA F 
6180.74 (revised)). Make sure the unique identification number on the 
labels match the pre-printed number on the Control Form. Please label 
other specimens with name and specimen set identification numbers. You 
may use labels and seals from any of the extra forms, but annotate them 
accordingly.
    b. Annotate each label with specimen description and source (as 
appropriate) (e.g., blood, femoral vein).
    c. Please provide copy of any written documentation regarding 
condition of body and/or sampling procedure that is available at the 
time specimens are shipped.

                              E. Handling:

    a. If specimens cannot be shipped immediately as provided below, 
specimens other than blood may be immediately frozen. Blood specimens 
should be refrigerated, but not frozen.
    b. All specimens and documentation should be secured from 
unauthorized access pending delivery for transportation.

                             F. Information:

    a. If the railroad has not already done so, please place the name of 
the subject at the top of the Control Form (STEP 1). You are requested 
to complete STEP 2 of the form, annotating it by writing the word 
``FATALITY,'' listing the specimens provided, providing any further 
information under ``Remarks'' or at the bottom of the form. If it is 
necessary to transfer custody of the specimens from the person taking 
the specimens prior to preparing the box for shipment, please use the 
blocks provided in STEP 5 to document transfer of custody.
    b. The railroad representative will also provide Accident 
Information Required for Post-Accident Toxicological Testing (49 CFR 
Part 219), Form FRA 6180.73 (revised). Both forms should be placed in 
the shipping box when completed; but you may retain the designated 
medical facility copy of each form for your records.

                      G. Packing the shipping box:

    a. Place urine bottles and blood tubes in the sponge liner in the 
individual kit, close the biohazard bag zipper, close the kit and apply 
the kit custody seal to the kit. You may use additional kits for each 
tissue specimen, being careful to identify specimen by tissue, name of 
deceased, and specimen set identification number. Apply kit security 
seals to individual kits and initial across all seals. Place all forms 
in the zip-lock bag and seal securely.
    b. Place the bag in the shipping box. Do not put forms in with the 
specimens. Seal the shipping box with the seal provided and initial and 
date across the seal.
    c. Affix the mailing label to the outside of the box.

                          H. Shipping the box:

    a. The railroad must arrange to have the box shipped overnight air 
express or (if express service is unavailable) by air freight, prepaid, 
to FRA's designated laboratory. When possible, but without incurring 
delay, deliver the sealed shipping box directly to the express courier 
or the air freight representative.
    b. If courier pickup is not immediately available at your facility, 
the railroad is required to transport the sealed shipping box to the 
nearest point of shipment via air express, air freight or equivalent 
means.
    c. If the railroad receives the sealed shipping box to arrange 
shipment, please record under ``Supplemental Information'' on the 
Control Form, the name of the railroad official taking custody.

                                I. Other:

    FRA requests that the person taking the specimens annotate the 
Control Form under ``Supplemental Information'' if additional 
toxicological analysis will be undertaken with respect to the fatality. 
FRA reports are available to the coroner or medical examiner on request.

[[Page 248]]



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